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Derivatives Regulation: Legislation in the 106th Congress
The 106th Congress is considering a general overhaul of derivatives regulation. Pending legislation would codify the unregulated status of certain derivatives, exempt many other currently-regulated contracts from oversight by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and permit the trading of a new kind of contract: a futures contract based on the stock of an individual corporation. Derivatives legislation has been reported out of committee in both House and Senate. This report analyzes this legislation in the 106th Congress, and will be updated as developments warrant.
The Commodity Futures Modernization Act (P.L. 106-554)
The last act of the 106th Congress was to pass an omnibus bill that included the Commodity Futures Modernization Act (H.R. 5660; P.L. 106-554), the most significant amendments to the regulation of derivatives trading in 25 years. Derivative financial instruments are those that gain or lose value as some underlying rate, price, or other economic variable changes. The 106th Congress approved an overhaul of derivatives regulation which codified the unregulated status of certain derivatives, permitted the exemption of other currently-regulated contracts from oversight by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), and permitted the trading of a new kind of contract: a futures contract/security hybrid based on the stocks of individual corporation.
The Commodity Futures Modernization Act (P.L. 106-554)
The Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 (CFMA) enacted the most sweeping amendments to derivatives law since the creation of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) in 1974. Provisions included major changes in the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) regarding the regulation of exchange-traded futures contracts, over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives, and “security futures,” contracts based on individual stocks (which were previously prohibited).
Unemployment: Issues in the 113th Congress
This report addresses three policy issues: whether to take additional measures to increase jobs (or avoid contractionary policies), what measures might be most effective, and how job creation proposals should be financed.
Derivatives Regulation in the 111th Congress
This report summarizes derivatives legislation that was considered but not enacted by the 111th Congress, and it provides background on the derivatives market.
Economic Development Administration: Reauthorization and Funding Issues in the 111th Congress
This report discusses the economic development program re-authorization issues and appropriations.
America's Growing Current Account Deficit: Its Cause and What It Means for the Economy
This report discusses the reasons for the U.S. current account deficit, popularly known as the trade deficit, and which is on the rise.
America's Growing Current Account Deficit: Its Cause and What It Means for the Economy
This report discusses the reasons for the U.S. current account deficit, popularly known as the trade deficit, and which is on the rise.
America's Growing Current Account Deficit: Its Cause and What It Means for the Economy
This report discusses the reasons for the U.S. current account deficit, popularly known as the trade deficit, and which is on the rise.
Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System
No Description Available.
Why Has the Economy Become Less Volatile?
The 2001 recession was unusually mild and brief by historical standards. At 120 months, the expansion that preceded it had been the longest in U.S. history. Is this a coincidence? A body of research concludes that it is not. This report discusses several theories for what caused this phenomenon.
The Pattern of Interest Rates in 2006: Could It Signal an Impending Recession?
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Paying Off the National Debt: Some Intergenerational Consequences
No Description Available.
Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues
The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major “reinvention” early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years. On October 27, Congress approved a conference agreement recommending $286.7 million for EDAP and $28 million for S&E, for a totalFY2001 appropriation of$411.9 million for EDA. It became part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 4942, P.L. 106-553) signed into law on December 21, 2000.
Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues
The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major “reinvention” early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years. On October 27, Congress approved a conference agreement recommending $286.7 million for EDAP and $28 million for S&E, for a totalFY2001 appropriation of$411.9 million for EDA. It became part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 4942, P.L. 106-553) signed into law on December 21, 2000.
Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues
The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major “reinvention” early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years. On October 27, Congress approved a conference agreement recommending $286.7 million for EDAP and $28 million for S&E, for a totalFY2001 appropriation of$411.9 million for EDA. It became part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 4942, P.L. 106-553) signed into law on December 21, 2000.
Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues
The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major "reinvention" early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years
The Economic Effects of Raising National Saving
Raising the share of income we save is a frequent aim of public policy. That may be particularly apparent in debates about the size of the federal budget deficit, but concerns about the low household saving rate have also prompted policymakers to consider ways to encourage individuals to save more. How much individuals save will directly affect their future economic well-being, but from a macroeconomic perspective, the source of saving — be it households, business, or government — makes no difference. This report presents standard economic analysis of the macroeconomic effects of raising saving.
The Economic Effects of Spending on Homeland Security
One direct result of the terrorist attacks of September 11 is that the cost of domestic security has risen. That increased cost is likely to be in the form of increased outlays on the military, as well as increases in spending for domestic law enforcement, public safety, and private security services. This report briefly discusses the economic effects of this increased cost looks into how security affects GDP.
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: An Update and Assessment After Nullification of OSHA's Ergonomics Standard
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the review scheme thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed.
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: A Brief Overview and Assessment After Five Years
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the formal review mechanism thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed.
Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: An Assessment After Nullification of OSHA's Ergonomics Standard
This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the formal review mechanism thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed.
Insurance Exclusion Clauses: Excluding War Risks and Terror Risks from Insurance Contracts
No Description Available.
Regulation of the Telemarketing Industry: State and National Do-Not-Call Registries
No Description Available.
Should the Federal Government Sponsor a National Lottery?: Some Preliminary Considerations
No Description Available.
Large and Continuing Deficits: Their Influence on Macroeconomic Performance
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Low Power FM Radio Service: Regulatory and Congressional Issues
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South Korea's Economy and Trade
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Food Additive Regulations: A Chronology
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Current Economic Conditions and Selected Forecasts
This report begins with a comprehensive presentation of current economic conditions focusing on income growth, unemployment, and inflation. The posture of monetary and fiscal policy is surveyed as are the forecasts of economic activity. It concludes with data on the factors important for economic growth.
The Consumer Price Index: An Overview
The consumer price index is probably the most widely used measure of inflation. Changes i n the index affect the incomes of a substantial portion of the U.S. population. This report provides background information on the history and concepts of the index. In addition, several factors which may produce biases in the index are analyzed. The objective is to provide an introduction to the CPI f o r the policy maker who wishes to acquire a working knowledge of the concept as an aid in examining economic policy alternatives.
Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
This report is a guide to basic sources useful in tracking federal legislation and regulations. It has been prepared primarily for the use of constituents who wish to follow the federal government's legislative or regulatory activities at the local level. Brief annotations for the selected printed, telephone, electronic, and related sources describe their scope, focus, and frequency, include publisher contact information, and provide Internet addresses where available.
U.S. Living Standards Compared to Those of Six Other Industrialized Nations
No Description Available.
Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources
This report is a guide to basic sources useful in tracking federal legislation and regulations. It has been prepared primarily for the use of constituents who wish to follow the federal government's legislative or regulatory activities at the local level. Brief annotations for the selected printed, telephone, electronic, and related sources describe their scope, focus, and frequency, include publisher contact information, and provide Internet addresses where available.
Regulation of the Telemarketing Industry: State and National Do-Not-Call Registries
No Description Available.
Regulation of the Telemarketing Industry: State and National Do-Not-Call Registries
No Description Available.
Inflation and the Real Minimum Wage: Fact Sheet
No Description Available.
Tax Cuts and Economic Stimulus: How Effective Are the Alternatives?
No Description Available.
Tax Cuts and Economic Stimulus: How Effective Are the Alternatives?
No Description Available.
Economic Development Administration: FY2016 Appropriations
This report discusses funding issues for the Economic Development Administration (EDA), which was created pursuant to the enactment of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965, with the objective of fostering growth in economically distressed areas characterized by high levels of unemployment and low per-capita income levels.
Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?
A major question that arises in Congress during its considerations of what policies promote and what inhibit the restoration of a healthy economy is the influence that interest rates exert. In particular, are high interest rates a threat to sustained economic recovery?
Long-Term Growth of the U.S. Economy: Significance, Determinants, and Policy
No Description Available.
The U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes, Consequences, and Cures
No Description Available.
The U.S. Trade Deficit in 1999: Recent Trends and Policy Options
No Description Available.
Tobacco Control: Enforcement and Effectiveness of Federal and State Youth Access Laws
No Description Available.
Overtime Pay: The Department of Labor Initiative and Congressional Response (2003-2004)
No Description Available.
The Special Inspector General for the Troubled Asset Relief Program
This report discusses the Special Inspector General provisions in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, H.R. 1424, which was enacted as P.L. 110-343 on October 3, 2008. This Act created a Special Inspector General (SIG) for the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). This report will compare the duties and authorities of the SIG TARP to those of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) and the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR), as well as statutory IGs under the Inspector General Act of 1978, as amended (IG Act).
Canada's Financial System: An Overview
This report discusses the relative stability of Canada's financial system in comparison to the financial systems of other nations around the globe that are suffering from the current financial crisis. This report presents an overview of Canada's financial system and its supervisory framework and draws some distinctions between that system and the current U.S. framework.
The Special Inspector General for the Troubled Asset Relief Program (SIG TARP)
This report discusses the Special Inspector General provisions in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, H.R. 1424, which was enacted as P.L. 110-343 on October 3, 2008. This Act created a Special Inspector General (SIG) for the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP). This report will compare the duties and authorities of the SIG TARP to those of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) and the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR), as well as statutory IGs under the Inspector General Act of 1978, as amended (IG Act).
Exchange Rates: The Dollar in International Markets
Mainstream economic theory suggests that U.S. budget deficit was the main cause of the dollar appreciation between 1980 and early 1985. The high budget deficit forced the U.S. Government to compete against the private sector for available savings, raising interest rates in the United States. In response, net capital inflows to the United States increased, the demand for dollars on the foreign exchange market went up, and the dollar appreciated. Restrictive budgets and loose monetary policies abroad, both of which kept interest rates low abroad, also contributed to the dollar’s appreciation on over this period.