Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Description: This report first discusses the current state of the economy, including measures that have already been taken by the monetary authorities, and assesses the need for and potential consequences of fiscal stimulus. The second part of the report reviews the proposals discussed during debate on the recently enacted fiscal stimulus, both those adopted and those considered but not adopted.
Date: September 5, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L.; Labonte, Marc; Weiss, N. E. & Whittaker, Julie M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ERISA’s Impact on Medical Malpractice and Negligence Claims Against Managed Care Plans

Description: This report examines the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), which provides a comprehensive federal scheme for the regulation of employee pension and welfare benefit plans offered by employers. While ERISA does not require an employer to offer pension and welfare benefits, it does mandate compliance with its provisions if such benefits are offered. Congress enacted ERISA to eliminate the conflicting and inconsistent regulation of pension and employee welfare benefit plans by state laws. The provisions at issue in the preemption debate are sections 502(a) and 514(a) of ERISA.
Date: February 21, 2008
Creator: Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Description: This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, a historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
Date: October 9, 2009
Creator: Austin, D. A. & Levit, Mindy R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China as the World’s “Largest Economy”

Description: Various media have recently reported that China has overtaken the United States to become the world’s largest economy (a position the United States had held at least since 1913), based on estimates of purchasing power parity (PPP) measurements and projections made by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). This report examines the data and its policy implications.
Date: January 29, 2015
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Description: This report discusses broadband Internet, examining what it is and the various technologies that allow for its transmission. Broadband or high-speed Internet access is provided by technologies that give users the ability to send and receive data at volumes and speeds far greater than access over traditional telephone lines; it also provides a continuous, "always on" connection (no need to dial-up) and a "two-way" capability, that is, the ability to both receive (download) and transmit (upload) data at high speeds.
Date: May 29, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions or regulations on lobbying activities of non-profit organizations. Public charities, social welfare organizations, religious groups, and other non-profit, tax-exempt organizations are not generally prohibited from engaging in all lobbying or public policy advocacy merely because of their tax-exempt status.
Date: November 26, 2002
Creator: Maskell, Jack H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions or regulations on lobbying activities of non-profit organizations. Public charities, social welfare organizations, religious groups, and other non-profit, tax-exempt organizations are not generally prohibited from engaging in all lobbying or public policy advocacy merely because of their tax-exempt status.
Date: May 7, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lobbying Regulations on Non-Profit Organizations

Description: This report is intended to provide a brief overview of the various potential restrictions, rules or regulations upon lobbying activities of non-profit organizations.
Date: May 19, 1998
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Development Administration: FY2016 Appropriations

Description: This report discusses funding issues for the Economic Development Administration (EDA), which was created pursuant to the enactment of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965, with the objective of fostering growth in economically distressed areas characterized by high levels of unemployment and low per-capita income levels.
Date: July 16, 2015
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monetary Policy and the Federal Reserve: Current Policy and Conditions

Description: Monetary policy can be defined as any policy relating to the supply of money. Since the agency concerned with the supply of money is the nation’s central bank, the Federal Reserve, monetary policy can also be defined in terms of the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Federal Reserve, particularly those from its Board of Governors that have an effect on national spending. This report discusses current issues regarding monetary policy.
Date: April 30, 2008
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monetary Policy: Current Policy and Conditions

Description: This report discusses monetary policy, which can also be defined in terms of the directives, policies, statements, and actions of the Federal Reserve, particularly those from its Board of Governors that have an effect on aggregate demand or national spending.
Date: July 21, 2004
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, or “Mad Cow Disease”): Current and Proposed Safeguards

Description: This report presents an overview of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or “mad cow disease”) in the United States. Shortly after the first case of BSE was announced, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other officials announced measures to improve existing safeguards against the introduction and spread of BSE. This report discusses trade restrictions, the live-stock “feed ban”, as well as the BSE surveillance and testing in cattle.
Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Lister, Sarah A & Becker, Geoffrey S
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Rule

Description: This report discuses the HIPAA privacy rule, which gives patients the right of access to their medical information and prohibits health plans and health care providers from using or disclosing individually identifiable health information without a patient’s written authorization except as expressly permitted or required by the rule.
Date: February 4, 2005
Creator: Redhead, C. S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Broadband Internet Regulation and Access: Background and Issues

Description: This is one part in the series of reports that provide a background and analysis, and most recent developments regarding broadband or high-speed Internet access. The report starts out by answering questions; what is broadband and why is it important? This report also discusses broadband technologies, the status of broadband deployment and the related policy issues, as well as the legislation in congress.
Date: July 31, 2007
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A. & Kruger, Lennard G
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why Has the Economy Become Less Volatile?

Description: The 2001 recession was unusually mild and brief by historical standards. At 120 months, the expansion that preceded it had been the longest in U.S. history. Is this a coincidence? A body of research concludes that it is not. This report discusses several theories for what caused this phenomenon.
Date: April 11, 2007
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Economic Effects of Spending on Homeland Security

Description: One direct result of the terrorist attacks of September 11 is that the cost of domestic security has risen. That increased cost is likely to be in the form of increased outlays on the military, as well as increases in spending for domestic law enforcement, public safety, and private security services. This report briefly discusses the economic effects of this increased cost looks into how security affects GDP.
Date: November 27, 2001
Creator: Cashell, Brian W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China-U.S. Trade Issues

Description: This report discusses the U.S.-China economic relationship and China's rapid expansion as a global economic market, both with respect to the current global economic crisis. It also examines major U.S.-China trade issues and related legislation.
Date: December 16, 2013
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

North Korea: Economic Sanctions

Description: U.S. economic sanctions are imposed against North Korea for five primary reasons: (1) North Korea is seen as posing a threat to U.S. national security; (2) North Korea is designated by the Secretary of State as a state sponsor or supporter of international terrorism; (3) North Korea is a Marxist-Leninist state, with a Communist government; (4) North Korea has been found by the State Department to have engaged in proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) North Korea has been found by the President to have detonated a nuclear explosive device. This paper explains the U.S. economic sanctions currently in place, and summarizes recent events as they relate to the potential application of additional restrictions.
Date: January 12, 2007
Creator: Rennack, Dianne E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russia: Primakov’s Economic Policy Dilemma and U.S. Interests

Description: This report focuses on two divergent scenarios faced by Russia in the wake of its financial crisis of August 1998. Prime Minister Yevgenii Primakov expected either a vicious cycle of decline and possible collapse in government or an economic management scenario following outlines of an agreed action program that makes imperative fundamental changes in the Russian financial system. The success or failure of Russia in dealing with this crisis may have more effect on the pursuit of peace and prosperity by the United States than any other foreign policy crisis.
Date: May 3, 1999
Creator: Hardt, John P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States

Description: This report provides background on China's economic rise; describes its current economic structure; identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth; and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications of China's economic rise for the United States.
Date: October 21, 2015
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Trade in Services: Trends and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. international trade in services, as well as policy issues before the United States. The report also examines emerging issues and current negotiations, including the Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA), the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP).
Date: November 3, 2015
Creator: Fefer, Rachel F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Effects of the FY2014 Shutdown

Description: This report provides an info-graphic discussing the economic effects of the FY2014 shutdown.
Date: September 24, 2015
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Momoh, Bisola
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Economic Stabilization Act: Preliminary Analysis of Oversight Provisions

Description: This report discusses the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, which provides authority for the Secretary of the Treasury to purchase and insure "troubled assets" to provide stability and prevent disruption in the economy and financial system.
Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Turkmenistan: Recent Developments and U.S. Interests

Description: This report examines Turkmenistan's halting economic and political reforms under the authoritarian leadership of President Saparmurad Niyazov. It discusses U.S. policy and assistance, including support for grassroots democratization and advocacy for human rights, and provides basic facts and biographical information.
Date: May 13, 2004
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department