Congressional Research Service Reports - 113 Matching Results

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Air Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards: An Overview of the National Low Emission Vehicle Program and Related Issues

Description: This report provides background information on federal emission standards for motor vehicles under the Clean Air Act and stricter standards originally developed to address the severity of air quality problems in California, explains the low emission standards and flexible compliance mechanisms to which states and manufacturers have voluntarily agreed under the National Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Program, discusses the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) estimates of the program's air quality benefits and costs, and examines regulatory issues related to its implementation including sulfur levels in gasoline and the relative stringency of emission standards for light trucks.
Date: January 4, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical Records Privacy: Questions and Answers on the HIPAA Final Rule

Description: This report discusses the issue facing Congress on whether to continue to support the executive branch’s prosecution of medical marijuana patients and their providers, in accordance with marijuana’s status as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, or whether to relax federal marijuana prohibition enough to permit the medical use of botanical cannabis products by seriously ill persons, especially in states that have created medical marijuana programs under state law.
Date: January 3, 2003
Creator: Redhead, C. Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tracking Current Federal Legislation and Regulations: A Guide to Basic Sources

Description: This report introduces selected basic sources that are useful in obtaining background information or specific facts on the status of federal legislative or regulatory initiatives. It includes telephone, online, and media sources are included, as well as pertinent directories, such as those of organizations that track areas of interest. Annotations describing each source's contents and organization are included so that researchers can select those that most closely fit their needs. Internet addresses usually provide information about the items, rather than access to them.
Date: January 13, 2005
Creator: Davis, Carol D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th

Description: The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs.
Date: January 8, 1999
Creator: Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Development Administration: Overview and Issues

Description: The Economic Development Administration (EDA), targeted for elimination or major “reinvention” early in the 104th Congress, gained a new lease on life in the waning days of the 105th. Having been kept alive via appropriations bills since its last authorizing legislation expired in 1982, P.L. 105-393 reauthorized the EDA and its programs for 5 years. On October 27, Congress approved a conference agreement recommending $286.7 million for EDAP and $28 million for S&E, for a totalFY2001 appropriation of$411.9 million for EDA. It became part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 4942, P.L. 106-553) signed into law on December 21, 2000.
Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Mulock, Bruce K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Economic Conditions

Description: China’s economy continues to be a concern to U.S. policymakers. On the one hand, China’s economic growth presents huge opportunities for U.S. exporters. On the other hand, the surge in Chinese exports to the United States has put competitive pressures on many U.S. industries. Many U.S. policymakers have argued that greater efforts should be made to pressure China to fully implement its WTO commitments and to change various economic policies deemed harmful to U.S. economic interests, such as its currency peg and its use of subsidies to support its SOEs. In addition, recent bids by Chinese state-owned firms to purchase various U.S. firms have raised concerns among Members over the impact such acquisitions could have on U.S. national and economic security.
Date: January 6, 2003
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Economic Conditions

Description: China’s economy remained relatively healthy in 2002, despite economic slowdowns in other parts of the world. Foreign investment continued to pour into China, and the Chinese government effectively used public spending to boost the economy. However, painful economic reforms will be necessary to keep the economic strong in 2003 and beyond. The recent outbreak in early 2003 of a very contagious virus called SevereAcuteRespiratory Syndrome (SARS) in China appears to have had a short-term negative impact on the Chinese economy.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking: An Update and Assessment After Nullification of OSHA's Ergonomics Standard

Description: This report will provide a brief explanation of how the review scheme was expected to operate and describe how it has in fact been utilized. The possible reasons for the limited use of the review scheme thus far are assessed and congressional remedial proposals and other options are discussed.
Date: January 6, 2003
Creator: Rosenberg, Morton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Current Economic Recession: How Long, How Deep, and How Different From the Past?

Description: This report examines the current recession and recessions of the previous three decades in detail. It gives a brief overview of the other post-war recessions. It outlines the fiscal and monetary policy response to each recession. It also looks at theories of why recessions occur. The report concludes by asking the question that many commentators in the news have asked recently: is this recession different from the past?
Date: January 10, 2002
Creator: Labonte, Marc & Makinen, Gail
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to Fix Electricity Rates and Charges and to Require Refund Payments by a Public Utility

Description: Sections 205 and 206 of the Federal Power Act concern rates and charges collected by a public utility in transmitting or selling electric energy in interstate commerce. These rates and charges are required to be just and reasonable. States retain jurisdiction over facilities for generation, distribution, or transmission of electric energy in intrastate commerce. The Commission has the authority to determine that an existing rate is unjust or unreasonable and set a new rate. In certain situations Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) may have authority to refund amounts paid in excess of just and reasonable rates. Case law is useful in determining when such a situation may exist.
Date: January 9, 2001
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations

Description: This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule.
Date: January 12, 2001
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.; McCarthy, James E.; Fischer, John W.; Segarra, Alejandro E. & Kumins, Lawrence C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ergonomics in the Workplace: Is It Time for an OSHA Standard?

Description: Improper ergonomic design of jobs is one of the leading causes of work-related illness, accounting for perhaps a third of employers’ costs under state workers’ compensation laws. Due to the wide variety of circumstances, however, any comprehensive standard would probably have to be complex and costly, while scientific understanding of the problem is not complete.
Date: January 16, 2001
Creator: Rappaport, Edward B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ergonomics in the Workplace: Is It Time for an OSHA Standard?

Description: Improper ergonomic design of jobs is one of the leading causes of work-related illness, accounting for perhaps a third of employers’ costs under state workers’ compensation laws. Due to the wide variety of circumstances, however, any comprehensive standard would probably have to be complex and costly, while scientific understanding of the problem is not complete.
Date: January 23, 2003
Creator: Rappaport, Edward B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department