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Navy Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses Navy procurement of Virginia-class (SSN-774) nuclear-powered attack submarines (SSNs) at a rate of one-per-year for the past several years. The procurement rate is scheduled to increase to two boats per year starting in FY2011. A total of 11 boats have been procured through FY2009. The eight Virginia-class submarines to be procured in the five-year period FY2009-FY2013 (boats 11 through 18) are being procured under a multiyear procurement (MYP) arrangement.
Date: April 29, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Covert Action: Legislative Background and Possible Policy Questions

Description: This report examines the statutory procedures governing covert action and associated questions to consider. Published reports have suggested that the Pentagon has expanded its counter-terrorism intelligence activities, and some observers have asserted that the Department of Defense (DOD) may have been conducting certain kinds of counterterrorism intelligence activities that would statutorily qualify as "covert actions," and thus require a presidential finding and the notification of the congressional intelligence committees.
Date: February 9, 2009
Creator: Cumming, Alfred
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renegotiating Arms Control Agreements: A Brief Review

Description: This report discusses previous arms control agreements that affected U.S. weapons programs or military activities. On July 14, 2015, Iran, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany finalized a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)--an agreement that restricts Iran's nuclear program in an effort to ensure that it can only be used for peaceful purposes.
Date: September 2, 2015
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA), under which members of the uniformed services and U.S. citizens who live abroad are eligible to register and vote absentee in federal elections. It discusses recent improvements to UOCAVA, as the result of controversy surrounding ballots received in Florida from absentee voters in the 2000 presidential election. The report also discusses related legislation, such as the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2010, which provided for a major overhaul of UOCAVA.
Date: July 30, 2015
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities--Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report focuses on the potential implications of China's naval modernization for future required U.S. Navy capabilities. Other CRS reports address separate issues relating to China. This report is based on unclassified open-source information.
Date: July 28, 2015
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medal of Honor: History and Issues

Description: This report briefly describes the history of the Medal of Honor (MoH) as well as the criteria and rules used in awarding the medal. It also lists the benefits that are made available to MoH recipients and describes the process involved in reconsidering an individual for receipt of the medal (including what assistance a Member may provide in this process).
Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Salazar Torreon, Barbara
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Piracy off the Horn of Africa

Description: This report discusses recent attacks -- including those on U.S.-flagged vessels -- in the waters off the Horn of Africa, which have brought new U.S. and international attention to the long-standing problem of piracy in the region.
Date: April 21, 2009
Creator: Ploch, Lauren; Blanchard, Christopher M.; O'Rourke, Ronald; Mason, R. C. & King, Rawle O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: A Glimpse at the Legal Background

Description: This report discusses the USA PATRIOT Act (107-56) and its expanded authority to issue national security letters (NSLs). A report by the Department of Justice's Inspector General (IG) found that in its pre-amendment use of expanded USA PATRIOT Act authority the FBI had "used NSLs in violation of applicable NSL statutes, Attorney General Guidelines, and internal FBI policies," but that no criminal laws had been broken.
Date: July 31, 2015
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy CG(X) Cruiser Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report discusses the reasoning behind the development of the Navy CG(X) cruiser program, the budgetary actions taking place to enable their development, selected technical specifics of their design, and various other information relating to defense procurement costs.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-Range Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

Description: This report discusses long-range ballistic missile defense in Europe. It includes background information on the topic, the particular threat, and the system to be used, as well as locations (Poland and the Czech Republic), policy issues, congressional actions, and related information.
Date: July 24, 2008
Creator: Hildreth, Steven A. & Ek, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment

Description: This study reviews the organizational history of the National Security Council (NSC) and other related components of the Executive Office regarding their changing role in the national security policy process. It is intended to provide information on the NSC's development as well as subsequent usage.
Date: February 6, 2009
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naval Station Guantanamo Bay: History and Legal Issues Regarding Its Lease Agreements

Description: This report briefly outlines the history of the establishment of the U.S. naval station at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba during the early twentieth century, its changing relationship to the community around it, and its heightened importance with the onset of military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. It also explains in detail the legal status of the lease of the land on which the naval station stands, the statutory and treaty authorities granted to the President with regard to any potential closure of the naval station, and the second-order effects on such a closure that current Cuba sanctions laws might have.
Date: August 4, 2015
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K. & Else, Daniel H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations - Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the Coast Guard, which is the lead federal agency for maritime homeland security. For FY2007, the Coast Guard is requesting a total of about $4.5 billion for missions defined in The Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-296) as the Coast Guard’s homeland security missions. This equates to about 54% of the Coast Guard’s total requested FY2007 budget. The Coast Guard’s homeland security operations pose several potential issues for Congress, including adequacy of Coast Guard resources for performing both homeland security and non-homeland security missions, and Coast Guard coordination with other agencies involved in maritime homeland security.
Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraqi Civilian, Police, and Security Forces Casualty Estimates

Description: This report presents various estimates of Iraqi civilian, police, and security forces casualties. The Department of Defense (DOD) regularly updates total U.S. military deaths and wounded statistics from Operation Iraqi Freedom, as reflected in CRS Report RS21578, Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties. However, no Iraqi or U.S. government office regularly releases statistics on Iraqi civilian deaths, Iraqi police deaths, or Iraqi security forces deaths. Statistics on these topics are sometimes available through alternative sources, such as nonprofit organizations, or through statements made by officials to the press.
Date: May 8, 2006
Creator: Fischer, Hannah
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security Research and Development Funding, Organization, and Oversight

Description: The Homeland Security Act consolidated some research and development (R&D) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), whose FY2007 R&D budget (excluding management/procurement) was requested at $1.1 billion, about 10% less than FY2006, and represents the first decline in DHS's R&D funding since the agency started funding R&D in 2002. DHS is mandated to coordinate all federal agency homeland security R&D, which was requested at about $5.1 billion. This report lists related legislation and policy issues relating to DHS's R&D programs.
Date: August 22, 2006
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homosexuals and U.S. Military Policy: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses policy towards homosexuals in the U.S. military service. In 1993, new laws and regulations pertaining to homosexuals and U.S. military service came into effect reflecting a compromise in policy. This compromise, colloquially referred to as “don’t ask, don’t tell,” holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their homosexuality. This compromise notwithstanding, the issue has remained politically contentious.
Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Dale, Charles V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations

Description: This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and the Senate Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Date: September 8, 2006
Creator: Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie & Epstein, Susan B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations

Description: This report covers funding and policy issues related to Foreign Operations, as addressed in the House and Senate, and State Department programs as debated in the Senate. The discussion and accompanying tables are designed to track the House Foreign Operations Appropriation measure, as well as the broader Senate State, Foreign Operations spending bill.
Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: Nowels, Larry; Veillette, Connie & Epstein, Susan B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Oversight Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: The Navy is procuring a new type of surface combatant called the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The Navy wants to procure a total of 55 LCSs. This report details the 2007 restructuring of the LCS program, as well as various financial information relating to the program. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's plans for the LCS program. The LCS program raises potential oversight issues for Congress relating to various aspects of the program, all of which are explored within this report.
Date: May 5, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment

Description: The National Security Council (NSC) was established in 1947. This report describes the history of the NSC, how is structure and influence have varied over the years from one Administration to another, what its current structure and who its current members are, varying opinions as to what the role of the NSC should be, and future developments for the NSC.
Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department