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Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties

Description: The following casualty data was compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency's press releases. Included are statistics on fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing, as well as on the number of fatalities since May 1, 2003, plus statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. Statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and as all records are processed through the U.S. military's casualty system.
Date: June 9, 2006
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

Description: This report discusses U.S. air defense, in the wake of 9/11. Protecting U.S. airspace may require improvements in detecting aircraft and cruise missiles, making quick operational decisions, and intercepting them. A number of options exist in each of these areas. A variety of issues must be weighed including expediency, cost, and minimizing conflicts with civilian aviation.
Date: June 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

Description: The September 11th attacks drew attention to U.S. air defense, and the 9/11 Commission Report recommended that Congress regularly assess the ability of Northern Command to defend the United States against military threats. Protecting U.S. airspace may require improvements in detecting aircraft and cruise missiles, making quick operational decisions, and intercepting them. A number of options exist in each of these areas. A variety of issues must be weighed including expediency, cost, and minimizing conflicts with civilian aviation.
Date: June 6, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD): Assessing Future Needs

Description: Suppressing enemy air defenses (SEAD) has been a central element of projecting military air power for over 50 years. However, several developments suggest that this mission is of growing importance to the Department of Defense (DOD). Some say that the emergence of new technologies and air defenses will increasingly challenge U.S. SEAD efforts. Making budgetary judgments on SEAD programs and processes requires the assessment of complex factors.
Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project BioShield

Description: Many potential biological terrorism agents lack available countermeasures. President Bush proposed Project BioShield to address this need and signed into law on July 21, 2004 S. 15 (The Project BioShield Act of 2004). The main provisions of this law include (1) relaxing procedures for bioterrorism-related procurement, hiring, and awarding of research grants; (2) guaranteeing a federal government market for new biomedical countermeasures; and (3) permitting emergency use of unapproved countermeasures.
Date: June 5, 2006
Creator: Gottron, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities -- Background and Issues for Congress

Description: Concern has grown in Congress and elsewhere about China's military modernization. The topic is an increasing factor in discussions over future required U.S. Navy capabilities. The issue for Congress addressed in this report is: How should China's military modernization be factored into decisions about U.S. Navy programs?
Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use -- Background for Congress

Description: This report provides background information on options for technologies that could reduce the Navy's dependence on oil for its ships, as well as four general strategies for reducing the Navy's dependence on oil for its ships: reducing energy use on Navy ships; alternative hydrocarbon fuels; nuclear propulsion; and sail and solar power.
Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coast Guard Deepwater Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Deepwater program is a $24 billion, 25-year acquisition program to replace or modernize 93 Coast Guard ships and 207 Coast Guard aircraft. The Coast Guard's FY2007 budget requests $934.431 million for the program. Some Members of Congress have criticized and expressed strong concerns over the Deepwater program on several grounds. The House-reported version of H.R. 5441, the FY2007 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) appropriations bill, recommends $892.64 million for the Deepwater program.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homeland Security: Coast Guard Operations -- Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Coast Guard is the lead federal agency for maritime homeland security. For FY2007, the Coast Guard is requesting a total of about $4.5 billion for missions defined in The Homeland Security Act of 2002 as the Coast Guard's homeland security missions. This equates to about 54% of the Coast Guard's total requested FY2007 budget. The Coast Guard's homeland security operations pose several potential issues for Congress, including adequacy of Coast Guard resources for performing both homeland security and non-homeland security missions, and Coast Guard coordination with other agencies involved in maritime homeland security.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Pay and Benefits: Key Questions and Answers

Description: In the late 1990s, the military services were facing considerable recruiting and career retention problems. In responding, Congress was mindful of how inadequate pay had contributed to decreased recruit quality in the late 1970s. It authorized larger pay raises, increased special pays and bonuses, provided more recruiting resources, and repealed planned military retired pay reductions for future retirees. Debate continues over what kinds of pay and benefit increases are best for improving recruiting and retention. Of particular interest is the balance between across-the-board pay raises on the one hand, and ones targeted by grade, years of service, and occupational skill, on the other; and between cash compensation on the one hand and improvements in benefits such as housing, health care, and installation services on the other.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Henning, Charles A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

POWs and MIAs: Status and Accounting Issues

Description: There has been a long-running controversy about the fate of certain U.S. prisoners of war (POWs) and servicemembers missing in action (MIAs) as a result of various U.S. military operations. While few people familiar with the issue feel that any Americans are still being held against their will in communist countries associated with the Cold War, more feel that some may have been so held in the past in the Soviet Union, China, North Korea, or North Vietnam. Similarly, few believe there has been a "conspiracy" to cover up the existence of live POWs, but many would maintain that there was, at least during the 1970s, U.S. government mismanagement of the issue. There is considerable evidence that prisoners from the end of World War II, the Korean War, and "Cold War shootdowns" of U.S. military aircraft may have been taken to the USSR and not returned. This report replaces Issue Brief IB92101 of the same name.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Henning, Charles A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ship Deployments: New Approaches -- Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy is implementing or experimenting with new kinds of naval formations, more flexible forward-development schedules, forward-homeporting additional Navy ships, and long-duration deployments with crew rotation (which the Navy calls Sea Swap). These changes, which form a key part of Navy transformation, raise several potential issues for Congress.
Date: May 31, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Network-Centric Warfare Concept: Key Programs and Issues for Congress

Description: Programs for implementing network-centric warfare (NCW) in the Navy include the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC), the IT-21 program, and FORCEnet. A related program is the Navy-Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI). Congress has expressed concern for some of these programs, particularly NMCI.
Date: May 30, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Norht Korea's Nuclear Weapons Program

Description: North Korea's decisions to restart nuclear installations at Yongbyon that were shut down under the U.S.-South Korean Agreed Framework of 1994 and to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty create an acute foreign policy problem for the United States. Restarting the Yongbyon facilities opens up a possible North Korean intent to stage a "nuclear breakout" of its nuclear program and openly produce nuclear weapons. The main objective of the Bush Administration is to secure the dismantling of North Korea's plutonium and uranium-based nuclear programs. China, South Korea, and Russia have criticized the Bush Administration for not negotiating directly with North Korea, and they voice opposition to economic sanctions and to the use force against Pyongyang. China, Russia, and even South Korea increasingly have expressed support for North Korea's position in six-party talks facilitated by China, but the talks have made little progress.
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Niksch, Larry A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Border Security and Military Support: Legal Authorizations and Restrictions

Description: The military generally provides support to law enforcement and immigration authorities along the southern border. Reported escalations in violence and illegal immigration, however, have prompted some lawmakers to reevaluate the extent and type of military support that occurs in the border region. President Bush has reportedly announced an interest in sending National Guard troops to support the Border Patrol. Addressing domestic laws and activities with the military, however, might run afoul of the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits use of the armed forces to perform the tasks of civilian law enforcement unless explicitly authorized. There are alternative legal authorities for deploying the National Guard, and the precise scope of permitted activities and funds may vary with the authority exercised.
Date: May 23, 2006
Creator: Vina, Stephen R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties

Description: This report provides casualty data compiled by the Department of Defense (DOD), as tallied from the agency’s press releases. Table 1 provides statistics on fatalities during Operation Iraqi Freedom, which began on March 19, 2003, and is ongoing, as well as on the number of fatalities since May 1, 2003, plus statistics on those wounded, but not killed, since March 19, 2003. Statistics may be revised as circumstances are investigated and as all records are processed through the U.S. military’s casualty system.
Date: May 18, 2006
Creator: O'Bryant, JoAnne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Middle East Peace Talks

Description: This report discusses the Middle East peace talks, including the new peace process with the most recent developments,and the war against terrorism.
Date: May 18, 2006
Creator: Migdalovitz, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department