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Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Description: Although Congress authorizes most federal programs for multiple years, it annually authorizes programs for national defense as well as appropriating funding for them each fiscal year. Of the activities traditionally authorized and funded, the Department of Defense (DOD) administers the following six environmental programs: environmental restoration, compliance, cleanup at base closure sites, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and natural resource conservation.
Date: December 13, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) operates six environmental programs that address cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to current activities, cleanup at military bases being closed, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste generated from the past production of atomic materials used to construct nuclear weapons and for remediating contaminated sites. For FY1999, the Administration has requested a total of $10. 14 billion for DOD and DOE's defense-related environmental activities, which represents about 3.7% of the total request of $271.6 billion for national defense and is roughly 1.6% below the FY1998 funding level of $l0.30 billion.
Date: July 28, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Convention on Nuclear Safety - A Fact Sheet

Description: Until the catastrophic accident with the former Soviet Union's Chernobyl nuclear power plant showed that radioactivity from a major nuclear accident could reach neighboring nations, nuclear safety was held to be an exclusively sovereign responsibility of each nation. Now it is recognized that a nuclear accident in one state can release radioactivity dangerous to another. As a result, many now view international cooperation as one way to help to assure safe operation of each nation's civil nuclear power stations.
Date: May 16, 1996
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Donnelly, Warren H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EURATOM and the United States: Renewing the Agreement for Nuclear Cooperation

Description: The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) is a regional organization established in 1958 to "create conditions necessary for the establishment and growth of nuclear industries." The United States promoted its establishment to benefit sales of U.S. nuclear power reactors and related equipment. fuels and technology in Europe. The agreement for nuclear cooperation between the United States and EURATOM expired at the end of 1995. On November 29 President Clinton submitted to Congress a new agreement. reached after several years of difficult negotiation.
Date: April 26, 1996
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Donnelly, Warren H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence Implications of the Military Technical Revolution

Description: The availability of precise, real-time intelligence has been an integral part of a military technical revolution being implemented by the Department of Defense for post-Cold War conflicts and peacekeeping operations. Providing this intelligence requires new types of equipment, analysis and organizational relationships within the U.S. intelligence community.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934

Description: In 1915, the United States undertook a military occupation of Haiti to preempt any European intervention, to establish order out of civil strife, and to stabilize Haitian finances. During the nineteen-year occupation, U.S. military and civilian officials, numbering less than 2500 for the most part, supervised the collection of taxes and the disbursement of revenues, maintained public order, and initiated a program of public works. The Haitian government remained in place, but was subject to U.S. guidance. The Haitian people benefitted from the end of endemic political violence and from the construction of roads, bridges, and ports as well as from improved access to health care. The U.S. occupation was, nonetheless, deeply resented throughout Haitian society, and many of its accomplishments did not long endure its termination in 1934.
Date: May 26, 1994
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bosnia Stabilization Force (SFOR) and U.S. Policy

Description: In December 1995, a NATO-led implementation force (IFOR) was deployed to Bosnia to enforce the military aspects of the Bosnian peace agreement. After fierce debate, the House and Senate passed separate resolutions in December 1995 expressing support for the U.S. troops in Bosnia, although not necessarily for the mission itself. Legislative efforts to bar funds for the deployment of U.S. troops to Bosnia were narrowly rejected. In the 105th Congress, similar efforts to bar a U.S. deployment after June 1998 were also rejected, although the FY 1998 defense authorization and appropriations laws contain reporting requirements that must be fulfilled before an extended deployment may take place. The defense appropriation measure requires the President to seek a supplemental appropriation for any deployment after June 1998.
Date: January 29, 1998
Creator: Bowman, Steven R.; Kim, Julie & Woehrel, Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the Armed Forces

Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Date: September 29, 1998
Creator: Burrelli, David F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Peacekeeping Options: Considerations for U.S. Policymakers and the Congress

Description: This report provides a frame of reference for considering the relative merits of using these organizations in peace and security operations. It first reviews the types of actions and activities available to deal with situations ranging from low-level tension to open conflict to post-conflict transition. It then examines, for each of the organizations, the major considerations, i.e., effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages, and other important issues for U.S. policy makers in their use.
Date: April 10, 1997
Creator: Collier, Ellen & Serafino, Nina M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the Armed Forces

Description: Women have become an integral part of the armed forces, but they are excluded from most combat jobs. Several issues remain. One is whether to reduce, maintain, or expand the number of women in the services as the total forces are being reduced. A second question is to what extent women should continue to be excluded from some combat positions by policy. Would national security be jeopardized or enhanced by increasing reliance on women in the armed forces? Should women have equal opportunities and responsibilities in national defense? Or do role and physical differences between the sexes, the protection of future generations, and other social norms require limiting the assignments of women in the armed forces? Opinion in the United States is deeply divided on the fundamental issues involved.
Date: November 20, 1991
Creator: Collier, Ellen C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desert Shield and Desert Storm Implications for Future U.S. Force Requirements

Description: This preliminary assessment summarizes U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps performances during recent war, then relates it to past experience and potential threats in ways that might help decisionmakers determine the most suitable characteristics of U.S. armed forces for the rest of this decade.
Date: April 19, 1991
Creator: Collins, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Burdensharing: Is Japan's Host Nation Support a Model for Other Allies?

Description: Under an agreement announced in January 1991, the Government of Japan committed itself to increase substantially the amount of support that it provides for U.S. military forces based there. Among other things, Japan agreed by 1995 to absorb 100 percent of the cost of Japanese nationals employed at U.S. military facilities and to pay for all utilities supplied to U.S. bases, to increase the amount of military and family housing construction that it is providing to support U.S. forces, to continue to provide facilities at no charge to the United States and to waive taxes and fees that might otherwise apply to U.S. activities.
Date: June 20, 1994
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996: A Summary

Description: The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 is the product of legislative efforts stretching back well over a decade and stimulated to passage in part by the tragedies in Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. This report summarizes the six titles of the Act, its sources, and related legislation.
Date: June 3, 1996
Creator: Doyle, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department