Congressional Research Service Reports - 216 Matching Results

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Criminal Prohibitions on the Publication of Classified Defense Information

Description: The recent online publication of classified defense documents by the organization WikiLeaks and subsequent reporting by the New York Times and other news media have focused attention on whether such publication violates U.S. criminal law. The Justice Department and Department of Defense are investigating the circumstances to determine whether any prosecutions will be undertaken in connection with the disclosure. This report discusses the statutory prohibitions that may be implicated, including the Espionage Act; the extraterritorial application of such statutes; and the First Amendment implications related to such prosecutions against domestic or foreign media organizations and associated individuals. The report provides a summary of recent legislation relevant to the issue as well as some previous efforts to criminalize the unauthorized disclosure of classified information.
Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Elsea, Jennifer K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Acquisition: Issues for Congress

Description: Increasing calls for intelligence support and continuing innovations in intelligence technologies combine to create significant challenges for both the executive and legislative branches. This report discusses Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems, which are integral components of both national policymaking and military operations, including counterterrorism operations. ISR systems are costly and complicated, and the relationships among organizations responsible for designing and operating these systems are equally complicated. These factors create numerous oversight issues for Congress, which this report addresses.
Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment

Description: The National Security Council (NSC) was established in 1947. This report describes the history of the NSC, how is structure and influence have varied over the years from one Administration to another, what its current structure and who its current members are, varying opinions as to what the role of the NSC should be, and future developments for the NSC.
Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Best, Richard A., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Latin America: Terrorism Issues

Description: Since the September 2001 terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, U.S. attention to terrorism in Latin America has intensified, with an increase in bilateral and regional cooperation. This report discusses the issue in relation to the U.S. State Department's April 2009 Country Report on Terrorism; Colombian President Hugo Chávez's sympathies with terrorist groups and lack of cooperation on antiterrorism efforts; growing U.S. concern over activities of terrorist groups Hezbollah and Hamas in the tri-border area of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay; and various legislative initiatives related to Latin American terrorism issues being considered by the 112th Congress.
Date: February 23, 2011
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Description: This report provides a basic overview of the island of Guam, including population and location, as well as the strategic significance of Guam for boosting U.S. deterrence and power projection in Asia.
Date: January 6, 2011
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Investment and National Security: Economic Considerations

Description: This report assesses recent international developments as the leaders from a number of nations work to reach a consensus on an informal set of best practices regarding national restrictions on foreign investment for national security purposes. This report also provides one possible approach for assessing the costs and benefits involved in using national policies to direct or to restrict foreign direct investment for national security reasons.
Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Description: Two separate but closely related issues confront Congress each time the President introduces armed forces into a situation abroad that conceivably could lead to their involvement in hostilities. One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution. The other issue is whether or not Congress concurs in the wisdom of the action. A longer-term issue is whether the War Powers Resolution is an appropriate and effective means of assuring congressional participation in actions that might get the United States involved in war.
Date: February 23, 2011
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background, Issues, and Options for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS), a relatively inexpensive Navy surface combatant equipped with modular "plug-and-fight" mission packages. The Navy's proposed FY2012 budget requests funding for the procurement of four LCSs. Current issues for Congress concerning the LCS program include changes or potential changes to the composition of LCS mission modules announced by the Navy in January 2011, the combat survivability of the LCS, and hull cracking on LCS-1. Congress's decisions on the LCS program could affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Peacekeeping/Stabilization and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on the Civilian Response/Reserve Corps and other Civilian Stabilization and Reconstruction Capabilities

Description: The 112th Congress may consider several issues regarding the continuing development of the Civilian Stabilization Initiative (CSI), the effort begun by the George W. Bush Administration to develop a three-component "ready response" civilian force. This report focuses especially on the establishment of the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) in the Office of the Secretary of State, and on the Civilian Reserve Corps (CRC). This report provides background on this initiative, its progression from the Bush Administration through the Obama Administration, and items under consideration in the 112th Congress relating to continued funding of S/CRS and the CRC. It also discusses proposals and tracks related legislative action.
Date: March 4, 2011
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guam: U.S. Defense Deployments

Description: This report provides a basic overview of the island of Guam, including population and location, as well as the strategic significance of Guam for boosting U.S. deterrence and power projection in Asia.
Date: February 18, 2011
Creator: Kan, Shirley A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Security Assistance Reform: "Section 1206" Background and Issues for Congress

Description: Section 1206 is the first major DOD authority to be used expressly for the purpose of training and equipping the national military forces of foreign countries. This report provides background on the pre-Section 1206 status of security assistance authorities and the factors contributing to the enactment of Section 1206. It then sets out the purposes of the legislation and scope of its activities, restrictions on its use, the DOD-State Department planning process, and funding. It concludes with a discussion of issues for Congress. An appendix provides a descriptive legislative history of the bill and evolving congressional committee attitudes towards the appropriate division of labor between the Department of Defense and the State Department regarding Section 1206 authority.
Date: March 3, 2011
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV): Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) is currently being developed by the Army and the Marine Corps as a successor to the 11 different versions of the High Mobility, Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) that have been in service since 1985. There are concerns about the affordability of JLTVs and its redundancy with other tactical wheeled vehicles.
Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Marines' Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV): Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle (EFV), which is an armored amphibious vehicle program that originated two decades ago to replace the 1970s-era Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV). The EFV has experienced a variety of developmental difficulties, which this report explores. This report also discusses potential related issues for Congress.
Date: March 14, 2011
Creator: Feickert, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Defense "Section 1207" Security and Stabilization Assistance: Background and Congressional Concerns, FY2006-FY2010

Description: Now expired, Section 1207 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2006 (P.L. 109-163) provided authority for the Department of Defense (DOD) to transfer to the State Department up to $100 million per fiscal year in defense articles, services, training or other support for reconstruction, stabilization, and security activities in foreign countries. This report provides background and data on Section 1207 authority and funding that may be useful for possible debate in the 112th Congress regarding the appropriate roles and funding mechanisms for DOD, the State Department, and other U.S. agencies in conflict prevention, management, and resolution, and in stabilization and reconstruction operations.
Date: March 3, 2011
Creator: Serafino, Nina M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act: Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA), under which members of the uniformed services and U.S. citizens who live abroad are eligible to register and vote absentee in federal elections. The report discusses recent improvements to UOCAVA, necessary as teh result of controversy surrounding ballots received in Florida from absentee voters in the 2000 presidential election. The report also discusses related legislation, such as the National Defense Authorization Act for FY2010, which provided for a major overhaul of UOCAVA.
Date: February 17, 2011
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: CVN-78, CVN-79, and CVN-80 are the first three ships in the Navy's new Gerald R. Ford (CVN- 78) class of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers (CVNs). This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the CVN-78 program.
Date: February 23, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

Description: This report provides an overview of Iraq's political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. This report also addresses ongoing governmental instabilities and their causes, as well as U.S. concerns about possible Iranian influence in Iraq as U.S. forces depart the country.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress

Description: The ongoing uprising in Libya against the government of Muammar al Qadhafi has been the subject of ongoing domestic and international debate about potential international military intervention, including the proposed establishment of a no-fly zone over Libya. This report discusses several related issues for Congress surrounding the strategy, international authorization, congressional authorization, operations, and costs of establishing and maintaining no-fly zones.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Gertler, Jeremiah; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Daggett, Stephen; Dale, Catherine; Elsea, Jennifer K. & Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

War in Afghanistan: Strategy, Operations, and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the ongoing U.S. military operations in Afghanistan, begun in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The report, which will be updated as events warrant, describe and analyzes several issues, including the key players in the war in Afghanistan; the strategic outlooks of the Afghan government, the U.S. government, and NATO; and the threats to the security and stability of the Afghan state and its people.
Date: March 9, 2011
Creator: Dale, Catherine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afghanistan Casualties: Military Forces and Civilians

Description: This report collects statistics from a variety of sources on casualties sustained during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), which began on October 7, 2001, and is ongoing. OEF actions take place primarily in Afghanistan, but OEF casualties also include American casualties in other countries, listed within this report.
Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: Chesser, Susan G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy SSBN(X) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the Navy's plan to develop and design a class of 12 next-generation ballistic missile submarines, or SSBN(X)s, as replacements for the 14 Ohio class SSBNs currently in operation. The report explores certain related issues for Congress, including the affordability of the project and its potential impact on other Navy shipbuilding programs, alternatives to the program, and which shipyard or shipyards will build the proposed ships.
Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department