Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Introducing a House Bill or Resolution

Description: This report discusses the primary steps for drafting a bill in the House. Ideas and recommendations for legislation may come from private sources, such as ordinary citizens or interest groups; executive branch agencies and the White House; state and local initiatives; and, of course, individual Members, committees and other work groups, and party and chamber leaders. Any or all of these entities may also participate in drafting legislation (resolutions as well as bills).
Date: August 3, 1999
Creator: Sachs, Richard C
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guiding a Bill Through the Legislative Process

Description: This report describes each stage of the legislative process that legislative assistants may find helpful as they seek to further the progress of a specific bill.
Date: April 4, 1994
Creator: Nickels, Ilona B
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill: Fact Sheet on Structure, Content, and Process

Description: This report discusses the legislative branch appropriations bill, which is one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress normally enacts each year for the fiscal year beginning on October 1. The report provides budget authority, which is statutory authority to spend specified amounts of money, for expenditures of the legislative branch for the fiscal year, including salaries.
Date: December 30, 1999
Creator: Tong, Lorraine H
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast Track for Trade Agreements: Procedural Controls for Congress and Proposed Alternatives

Description: This report discusses the fast track trade procedures in the Trade Act of 1974 operate as procedural rules of the House and Senate, and the statute itself declares them to be enacted as an exercise of the constitutional authority of each house to determine its own rules. These procedures prevent Congress from altering an implementing bill or declining to act, but permit it to enact or reject the bill. By these means Congress retains authority to legislate in the areas covered, yet affords the President conditions for effective negotiation.
Date: October 31, 1997
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Administrative Reorganization: 104th Congress

Description: This report discusses the management responsibility for financial, security, and legislative operations.
Date: September 13, 1996
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S & Tong, Lorraine H
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Censure of the President by the Congress

Description: Exploring a possible compromise between an impeachment and taking no congressional action, certain Members of Congress and congressional commentators have suggested a congressional “censure” of the President to express the Congress’ disapproval of the President’s conduct which has been the subject of an ongoing independent counsel investigation. This report provides and overview and discussion of the legal basis and congressional precedents regarding a congressional “censure” of the President.
Date: September 9, 1998
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environment in Fast Track Trade Authority: Summary of the Clinton Administration Proposal

Description: President Clinton has asked Congress for "fast track" authority for implementing future trade agreements; this authority would limit congressional debate and prevent amendments to implementing legislation. Delays in completing this proposal were attributed to difficulties in reconciling conflicting pressures over environment and labor concerns. The President's proposal contains references to environmental concerns, but various interests are likely to seek clarification on these points.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Description: This report describes the annual appropriations cycle from the President’s submission of his annual budget through enactment of the appropriations measures. It describes the three types of appropriations measures—regular appropriations bills, continuing resolutions, and supplemental bills. It explains the spending ceilings for appropriations bills that are associated with the budget resolution and the sequestration process, including a description of the mechanisms used to enforce the ceilings. It also explains the authorization appropriations process, which prohibits certain provisions in some of the appropriations bills.
Date: August 3, 1999
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuing Appropriations Acts: Brief Overview of Recent Practices

Description: This report provides information on the history of continuing resolutions; the nature, scope, and duration of CRs during the last 30 years; the various types of CRs that have been enacted; and an overview of those instances when budget authority has lapsed and a funding gap has resulted.
Date: September 26, 1997
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process

Description: The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit.
Date: May 8, 1998
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debt-Limit Legislation in the Congressional Budget Process

Description: The gross federal debt consists of the debt held by the public plus the debt held by government accounts. Almost all of the gross federal debt is subject to a public debt limit, as set forth in statute (31 U.S.C. 3101).This report considers legislation needed to change the public debt limit.
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conference Committee and Related Procedures: An Introduction

Description: Conference committees generally are free to conduct their negotiations as they choose, but they are to address only the matters on which the House and Senate have disagreed. Moreover, they are to propose settlements that represent compromises between the positions of the two houses. When they have completed their work, they submit a conference report and joint explanatory statement, and the House and Senate vote on accepting the report without amendments. Sometimes conference reports are accompanied by amendments that remain in disagreement. Only after the two houses have reached complete agreement on all provisions of a bill can it be sent to the President for his approval or veto.
Date: July 29, 1996
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Description: In the 105th Congress, legislation to reauthorize the Clean Water Act was not been introduced, and no major House or Senate committee activity occurred. EPA and states' water quality inventories have identified wet weather flows (including agricultural runoff, urban storm water, and sewer overflows) as the largest remaining threat to water quality. EPA's clean water programs are now focusing to a large extent on solving wet weather pollution problems. These issues may be addressed legislatively, as well. At issue is whether and how to detail wet weather programs in the Act versus allowing flexibility that recognizes the site-specific nature of intermittent wet weather pollution.
Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Description: This Issue Brief discusses clean air issues that arose in the 105th Congress. CRS Issue Brief IB10004 addresses the 106th Congress.
Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Date: September 18, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Description: In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
Date: November 24, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disaster Mitigation Bills in the 106th Congress: H.R. 707, S. 1691 Compared

Description: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act authorizes the President to declare that an emergency or major disaster exists that overwhelms state and local resources. Legislation before the 106th Congress (H.R. 707 and S. 1691) would, among other matters, amend the Act to: (1) fund hazard mitigation projects designed to reduce future disaster losses; (2) add conditions to assistance; and (3) consolidate provisions governing the distribution of aid to disaster victims. This report compares provisions of the two bills, and will be updated as legislative action occurs.
Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: Bea, Keith
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department