Congressional Research Service Reports - 1,935 Matching Results

Search Results

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Description: Congress annually considers 13 or more appropriations measures, which provide funding for numerous activities, for example, national defense, education, homeland security, and crime. These measures also fund general government operations such as the administration of federal agencies. Congress has developed certain rules and practices for the consideration of appropriations measures, referred to as the congressional appropriations process. This report discusses the following aspects of this process: Annual appropriations cycle; Spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and Prohibitions against certain language in appropriations measures that violate separation of the authorization and appropriation functions into separate measures.
Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Allocations and Subdivisions in the Congressional Budget Process

Description: The annual budget resolution sets forth total spending and revenue levels for at least five fiscal years. The spending amounts are allocated, or “crosswalked,” to the House and Senate committees having jurisdiction over discretionary spending (the Appropriations Committees) and direct spending (the legislative committees). This report very briefly discusses the allocations and subdivisions portions of the congressional budget process.
Date: August 29, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pay-As-You-Go Procedures for Budget Enforcement

Description: “Pay-as-you-go” (PAYGO) procedures play an important role in enforcing budget policies with respect to the consideration of revenue and direct spending legislation. Generally, the purpose of PAYGO procedures is to discourage or prevent the enactment of legislation that would cause, or increase, a deficit or reduce a surplus.
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Primer: A Guide for New Members

Description: This report describes the power of the Congress over the armed forces, including the power to "to raise and support Armies," "to provide and maintain a Navy," "to make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces" and "to provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States...", as well as references to other reports on related topics.
Date: March 3, 2017
Creator: Kapp, Lawrence
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Resolutions of Inquiry in the House

Description: This report examines the use of resolutions of inquiry in the House of Representatives from 1947 to 2011. A resolution of inquiry is a measure that formally calls on the executive branch to provide specified factual information to Congress.
Date: March 6, 2017
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commitee Assignment Process in the U.S. Senate: Democratic and Republican Party Procedures

Description: Because of the importance of committee work, Senators consider desirable committee assignments a priority. After general elections are over, one of the first orders of business for Senate leaders is setting the sizes and ratios of committees. This report describes the process of creating Senate committees, including the nomination process and rules and regulations specifically pertaining to said process.
Date: November 3, 2006
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses sovereign debt, which is also called public debt or government debt, and refers to debt incurred by governments. The first section provides background information on sovereign debt, including why governments borrow, how sovereign debt differs from private debt, why governments repay their debt (or not), and how sovereign debt is measured. The second section examines the shift of concerns over sovereign debt sustainability from emerging markets in the 1990s and 2000s to advanced economies following the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, and the challenges posed by high debt levels. The third section analyzes the different policy options governments have for lowering debt levels. It also discusses the current strategy being used by most advanced economies -- fiscal austerity -- and concerns that have been raised about its global impact. Finally, the fourth section analyzes issues of particular interest to Congress, including comparisons between U.S. and European debt levels, how efforts to reduce debt levels could impact the U.S. economy, and policy options available to Congress for engaging on this issue.
Date: October 28, 2013
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Rules Manual: Summary of Contents

Description: This report provides a description of house rules and manuals. The first section of the House Manual identifies the more substantive rules changes made by the House resolution adopting the rules of the current Congress. Also identified are citations to volumes of precedents referenced in the parliamentarian's annotations.
Date: September 23, 2013
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Description: Report that identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of the date of passage of S. 679, which became P.L. 112-166 on August 10, 2012. It begins with a brief description of the referral process and identify, for each committee to which referrals have been made, the positions that fall within the committee's jurisdiction.
Date: November 15, 2012
Creator: Davis, Christopher M. & Mansfield, Jerry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Resolutions of Inquiry

Description: The resolution of inquiry is a simple House resolution that seeks factual information from the executive branch. This report explains the history, procedure, specific uses of resolutions of inquiry, and notes recent increases in their usage. The examples in this report demonstrate that, historically, even when a resolution of inquiry is reported adversely from a committee and tabled on the floor, it has frequently led to the release of a substantial amount of information from the Administration.
Date: June 17, 2009
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900 - 2009

Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process). This report focuses on when the Senate became aware of the President's selection (e.g., via a public announcement by the President).
Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam & Rutkus, Denis Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Committee Numbers, Sizes, Assignments, and Staff: Selected Historical Data

Description: The development of today's committee system is a product of internal congressional reforms, but national forces also have played a role. This report contains data on the numbers and sizes of committees and subcommittees and on Members' assignments since 1945. This report also contains data on committee staff sizes from 1979 through 1995.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Vincent, Carol Hardy & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Legislative Process on the House Floor: An Introduction

Description: This report is an introductory and selective explanation of the rules, procedures, and practices by which the House of Representatives considers public bills and resolutions on the floor. After discussions of the nature of House rules, the differences between the House and the Committee of the Whole, and limitations on debate, the report describes five different ways in which the House may consider, perhaps debate and amend, and then vote on whether to pass legislation. The report also discusses the House's calendars and its order of business, the special rules reported by the Rules Committee, House consideration of Senate amendments and conference reports, and the rules and constitutional requirements affecting voting and quorum procedures.
Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Davis, Christopher M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Social Security's Treatment Under the Federal Budget: A Summary

Description: The treatment of Social Security in the federal budget is often confusing. In legislation enacted in 1983, 1985, and 1990, Social Security was excluded from official budget calculations and largely exempted it from congressional procedures for controlling budget revenues and expenditures. However, because Social Security represents more than a fifth of federal revenues and expenditures, it often is included in summaries of the government's financial flows, or what is referred to as the "unified" budget.
Date: March 20, 2002
Creator: Koitz, David Stuart
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Counter-Terrorism Training: Issues for Congressional Oversight

Description: This report is an overview of the major training activities and facilities of the federal departments and agencies that provide counter-terrorism training. It identifies some of the issues associated with the training, including the following: (1) possible duplication of federal counter-terrorism training programs; (2) determination of Department of Homeland Security (DHS) counter-terrorism training priorities; and (3) possible redundancy and coordination of DHS counter-terrorism training programs.
Date: August 31, 2006
Creator: Reese, Shawn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Promotion Authority and Fast-Track Negotiating Authority for Trade Agreements: Major Votes

Description: This report profiles significant legislation, from 1974 to the present, concerning presidential trade promotion authority (also referred to as TPA) for trade agreements. TPA was previously known as fast-track trade negotiating authority for the President. This report identifies significant bills and resolutions that had floor votes. Also included is a list of floor votes on implementing legislation for trade agreements, from 1979 to the present; these bills were passed under expedited procedures by Congress and signed by the President. For further discussions of TPA or fast-track legislative activity, the report lists CRS reports and Internet resources.
Date: September 29, 2006
Creator: Smith, Carolyn C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

Description: Two separate but closely related issues confront Congress each time the President introduces armed forces into a situation abroad that conceivably could lead to their involvement in hostilities. One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution. The other issue is whether or not Congress concurs in the wisdom of the action. A longer-term issue is whether the War Powers Resolution is an appropriate and effective means of assuring congressional participation in actions that might get the United States involved in war.
Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Leadership Structure: Overview of Party Organization

Description: At the beginning of each Congress, Members meet to organize and select their leaders. Democrats call their party organization the Democratic Caucus; Republicans call their party organization the Republican Conference. Within the caucus and conference are numerous entities that assist party leaders in determining the work and role of the Members of that party. This report serves as a companion piece to CRS Report RS20499, House Leadership: Whip Organization, and CRS Report RS20881, Party Leaders in the House.
Date: July 10, 2003
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Subcommittees: Assignment Process

Description: House rules, Republican Conference and Democratic Caucus rules, and individual committee rules all address the subcommittee assignment process, although to varying degrees. This report describes the assignment process for House Subcommittees.
Date: May 11, 2007
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Subcommittees in the House of Representatives

Description: Subcommittees are entities created by full committees to assist them in managing their work. Service on subcommittees enables members to develop expertise in specialized fields. Subcommittees diffuse the legislative process. For the most part, they are independent, autonomous units with written jurisdictions, and, pursuant to longstanding practice, most bills are referred by a full committee to them. This report provides a brief history of subcommittees, as well as their modern role and function in Congress.
Date: May 3, 2007
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Points of Order in the Congressional Budget Process

Description: The Congressional Budget Act of 1974 created a process that Congress uses each year to establish and enforce the parameters for budgetary legislation. This report summarizes points of order under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974, as amended, as well as related points of order established in the budget resolutions adopted by Congress in 2007 and 2008, the Rules of the House for the 110th Congress, and the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990. In addition, it describes how points of order are applied and the processes used for their waiver in the House and Senate.
Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Committees: Categories and Rules for Committee Assignments

Description: Both House and party rules detail procedures for committee assignments. House rules address the election and membership of committees, especially limitations on membership. The Democratic Caucus and Republican Conference rules designate categories of committees (shown below) and specify service limitations in addition to those in the House rules.
Date: March 20, 2008
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Committee Organization and Process: A Brief Overview

Description: Committees are integral to the work of Congress in determining the policy needs of the nation and acting on them. This report provides a brief overview of six features of the committee system in the House: organization, hearings, markup, reporting, oversight, and publications. Committees in the House have four primary powers: to conduct hearings and investigations, to consider bills and resolutions and amendments to them, to report legislation to the House for its possible consideration, and to monitor executive branch performance, that is, to conduct oversight.
Date: April 21, 2008
Creator: Schneider, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department