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Congressional Budget Office: Appointment and Tenure of the Director and Deputy Director

Description: Section 20 1 (a) requires that the selection be made "without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of his fitness to perform his duties." Media reports over the years indicate that the CBO director is selected under informal practices in which the House and Senate Budget Committees alternate in recommending a nominee to the Speaker and President pro tempore of the Senate. These reports also indicate that the Speaker and President pro tempore have adhered to the Budget Committees' recommendations in making past selections. To the extent that these practices are informal, there may be disagreement with regard to their operation in the future selection of a CBO director.
Date: October 18, 2005
Creator: Keith, Robert & Bley, Mary Frances
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The First Day of a New Congress: A Guide to Proceedings on the House Floor

Description: The House of Representatives follows a well established routine on the opening day of a new Congress. The proceedings include election of the Speaker, swearing in its members, election of administrative officers, and adoption of rules of procedure. Also, resolutions assigning its members to committees may be adopted. The House must take these actions at the beginning of each new Congress because it is not a continuing body. Article 1, Section 2 of Constitution sets terms for Members of the House at two years. Thus, the House ends at the conclusion of each two-year Congress and must reconstitute itself at the beginning of a new Congress. This report focuses on the floor activities of the House during its first formal session in a new Congress, and serves as a guide for participating in or watching those proceedings.
Date: August 17, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Oversight

Description: Congressional oversight of policy implementation and administration, which has occurred throughout the U.S. government experience under the Constitution, takes a variety of forms and utilizes various techniques. These range from specialized investigations by select committees to annual appropriations hearings, and from informal communications between Members or congressional staff and executive personnel to the use of extra congressional mechanisms, such as offices of inspector general and study commissions. Oversight, moreover, is supported by a variety of authorities—the Constitution, public law, and chamber and committee rules—and is an integral part of the system of checks and balances between the legislature and the executive
Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Kaiser, Frederick M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress

Description: This report identifies women who have served as U.S. Senators or Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships.
Date: April 24, 1985
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closing a Congressional Office: A Brief Overview

Description: This paper sets forth questions that a congressional office needs to consider in the process of closing down. These include statutory and non-statutory matters such as staff, the franking privilege, retirement benefits for Members and staff, allowances, and the disposition of congressional papers, and other office items.
Date: May 18, 1981
Creator: Carlile, Judy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congress' Power to Legislate Control Over Hate Crimes: Selected Legal Theories

Description: Congress has no power under the commerce clause over “noneconomic, violent criminal conduct” that does not cross state lines said Chief Justice William Rehnquist in United States v. Morrison. Congress, however, enjoys additional legislative powers under the spending clauses and the legislative clauses of the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Extensive, if something less than all encompassing, national legislation may be possible under the confluence of authority conveyed by the commerce clause, spending clause, and the legislative clauses of the constitution’s Reconstruction Amendments, provided the limitations of the First, Sixth and Tenth Amendments are observed.
Date: November 28, 2005
Creator: Wallace, Paul Starett, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China and "Falun Gong"

Description: This report discusses the “Falun Gong” movement, which led to the largest and most protracted public demonstrations in China since the democracy movement of 1989. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) government, fearful of a political challenge and the spread of social unrest, outlawed Falun Gong in July 1999. Despite a massive government campaign against them and harsh punishments meted out to many followers, Falun Gong members continued to stage demonstrations for over two years.
Date: January 23, 2004
Creator: Lum, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Committee Controls of Agency Decisions

Description: Congress has a long history of subjecting certain types of executive agency decisions to committee control, either by committees or subcommittees. Especially with the beginning of World War II, the executive branch agreed to committee controls as an accommodation that allowed Congress to delegate authority and funds broadly while using committees to monitor the use of that discretionary authority. These committee-agency arrangements took the form of different procedures: simply notifying the committee, obtaining committee approval, "coming into agreement" understandings, and using the congressional distinction between authorization and appropriation to exercise committee controls. This report explains how and why committee vetoes originated, the constitutional objections raised by the executive branch, the Court’s decision in Chadha, and the continuation of committee review procedures since that time.
Date: November 16, 2005
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees

Description: On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation.
Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative Branch: FY2006 Appropriations

Description: This report is a guide to the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Committee on Appropriations and Senate Subcommittee on Legislative Branch of the Senate Committee on Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity.
Date: August 30, 2005
Creator: Dwyer, Paul E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutionality of a Senate Filibuster of a Judicial Nomination

Description: This report provides an overview of the major issues which have been raised recently in the Senate regarding the Judicial Nominations, Filibusters, and the Constitution: When a Majority Is Denied Its Right to Consent and in the press concerning the constitutionality of a Senate filibuster (i.e., extended debate) of a judicial nomination.
Date: June 14, 2005
Creator: Shampansky, Jay R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department