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Congressional Budget Actions in 2004

Description: During the second session of the 108th Congress, the House and Senate considered many different budgetary measures. Most of them pertained to FY2005 (referred to as the “budget year”) and beyond. In addition, some made adjustments to the budget for FY2004 (referred to as the “current year”). This report describes House and Senate action on major budgetary legislation within the framework of the congressional budget process and other procedural requirements.
Date: December 27, 2004
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for the 108th Congress

Description: The United States and Mexico have a special relationship as neighbors and partners under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The friendly relationship has been strengthened by President Bush's meetings with President Fox but has been weakened by disagreements over Iraq and other issues. Major congressional issues are trade, migration/border security, drug trafficking, and political and human rights issues.
Date: December 22, 2004
Creator: Storrs, K. Larry
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments Between the Houses

Description: This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. An exchange of amendments between the houses resolves these differences.
Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

Description: The term “budget process,” when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President’s budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations.
Date: December 9, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind Is Used

Description: This report briefly describes the process by which Congress seeks to pass a law. During this process Congress uses a bill or joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, that is then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Date: December 7, 2004
Creator: Beth, Richard S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Water Act Issues in the 108th Congress

Description: This report discusses issues regarding the Clean Water Act. Prospects for legislative initiatives to comprehensively amend the Clean Water Act (CWA) have stalled for some time over whether and exactly how to change the law, and Congress has recently focused legislative attention on narrow bills to extend or modify selected CWA programs, rather than taking up comprehensive proposals. For example, the 108th Congress enacted one bill amending the CWA, legislation to reauthorize the National Estuary Program (H.R. 4731, P.L. 108-399).
Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Description: Congress annually considers 13 or more appropriations measures, which provide funding for numerous activities, for example, national defense, education, homeland security, and crime. These measures also fund general government operations such as the administration of federal agencies. Congress has developed certain rules and practices for the consideration of appropriations measures, referred to as the congressional appropriations process. This report discusses the following aspects of this process: Annual appropriations cycle; Spending ceilings for appropriations associated with the annual budget resolution; and Prohibitions against certain language in appropriations measures that violate separation of the authorization and appropriation functions into separate measures.
Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Description: This report describes the annual appropriations cycle from the President’s submission of his annual budget through enactment of the appropriations measures. It describes the three types of appropriations measures—regular appropriations bills, continuing resolutions, and supplemental bills. It explains the spending ceilings for appropriations bills that are associated with the budget resolution and the sequestration process, including a description of the mechanisms used to enforce the ceilings. It also explains the authorization appropriations process, which prohibits certain provisions in some of the appropriations bills.
Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutionality of a Senate Filibuster of a Judicial Nomination

Description: This report provides an overview of the major issues which have been raised recently in the Senate regarding the Judicial Nominations, Filibusters, and the Constitution: When a Majority Is Denied Its Right to Consent and in the press concerning the constitutionality of a Senate filibuster (i.e., extended debate) of a judicial nomination.
Date: December 6, 2004
Creator: Shampansky, Jay R
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commonly Used Motions and Requests in the House of Representatives

Description: This report identifies the most commonly used motions and requests available to Members during proceedings in the House of Representatives. The report divides the motions and requests into seven broad categories, based on when the motion or request is in order and who can make the motion or request. Daily Business is the category that includes items that are routine to the conduct of business in the House each day, such as the motion to adjourn. Decorum and Privilege covers issues of the rights and privileges of Members and the House and how Members conduct themselves on the floor.
Date: November 30, 2004
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Party Leaders in the House: Election, Duties, and Responsibilities

Description: Each major party in the House has a leadership hierarchy. This report summarizes the election, duties, and responsibilities of the Speaker of the House, the majority and minority leaders, and the whips and whip system.
Date: November 29, 2004
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2004

Description: This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the process for awarding Congressional Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards.
Date: November 23, 2004
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees

Description: On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation.
Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments in the House: Types and Forms

Description: This report briefly discusses the amending process, which is central to the consideration of legislation by the House of Representatives, and the rules, practices, and precedents that underlie this process frequently depend on distinguishing among amendments based on their type and form. Simply put, not all amendments are equal in a procedural sense, and the form or type of amendment frequently determines what further amendments may be offered, and therefore what alternatives the House may choose among.
Date: November 18, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments in Disagreement

Description: This report briefly summarizes the process of amendments between the House of Representatives and the Senate, which occurs if the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure. The House and Senate must approve an identical version of a measure before it may be presented for the President's approval or veto. If the House and Senate approve differing versions of a measure, the differences must first be resolved.
Date: November 3, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Amendments in the Senate: Types and Forms

Description: This report briefly describes the various types of amendments that take place in the Senate. It has sections describing distinctions among amendments, degrees of amendments, forms of amendments, and the scope of amendments.
Date: November 2, 2004
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department