Congressional Research Service Reports - 705 Matching Results

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Clean Coal Loan Guarantees and Tax Incentives: Issues in Brief

Description: This report discusses certain federal financial incentive mechanisms for "clean coal" commercial projects; namely, loan guarantees and tax incentives. At issue for Congress is the extent to which the private sector has used these financial toolsto develop the technology needed for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions while continuing to use available domestic coal reserves for electricity generation.
Date: August 19, 2014
Creator: Folger, Peter & Sherlock, Molly F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATO Enlargement: Senate Advice and Consent

Description: This report describes the provisions of the North Atlantic Treaty and of the original Senate debate in 1949 pertinent to enlargement and the procedures that have been followed for each subsequent enlargement proposal. It also discusses what the Senate did with respect to the reunification of Germany in 1990 and the implications of that event for Germany's membership in NATO.
Date: January 15, 2010
Creator: Garcia, Michael John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Oversight and Related Issues Concerning International Security Agreements Concluded by the United States

Description: This report looks at issues arising from disputes between Congress and the executive branch. It begins by providing a general background on the types of international agreements that are binding upon the United States, as well as considerations affecting whether they take the form of a treaty or an executive agreement. Next, the report discusses historical precedents as to the role that security agreements have taken, with specific attention paid to past agreements entered with Afghanistan, Germany, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Iraq. The report discusses the oversight role that Congress exercises with respect to entering and implementing international agreements involving the United States.
Date: June 7, 2012
Creator: Garcia, Michael John & Mason, Chuck R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2010

Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and the present. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process). This report focuses on when the Senate became aware of the President's selection (e.g., via a public announcement by the President).
Date: August 6, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. S. & Rutkus, Denis S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speed of Presidential and Senate Actions on Supreme Court Nominations, 1900-2010

Description: This report provides information on the amount of time taken to act on all Supreme Court nominations occurring between 1900 and 2010. It focuses on the actual amounts of time that Presidents and the Senate have taken to act after learning about vacancies, selections, etc. (as opposed to the elapsed time between official points in the process).
Date: April 21, 2010
Creator: Garrett, R. Sam & Rutkus, Denis Steven
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Signing Statements: Constitutional and Institutional Implications

Description: Presidential signing statements are official pronouncements issued by the President contemporaneously to the signing of a bill into law that, in addition to commenting on the law generally, have been used to forward the President's interpretation of the statutory language; to assert constitutional objections to the provisions contained therein; and, concordantly, to announce that the provisions of the law will be administered in a manner that comports with the administration's conception of the President's constitutional prerogatives. This report focuses on the use of signing statements by recent administrations, with particular emphasis on the Administrations of George W. Bush and Barack Obama.
Date: January 4, 2012
Creator: Garvey, Todd
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: A Sketch

Description: This report examines the source of Congress's contempt power; analyzes the procedures associated with inherent contempt, criminal contempt, and the civil enforcement of subpoenas; and discusses the obstacles that face Congress in enforcing a contempt action against an executive branch official.
Date: April 10, 2014
Creator: Garvey, Todd & Dolan, Alissa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: A Sketch

Description: This report examines the source of Congress's contempt power, analyzes the procedures associated with inherent contempt, criminal contempt, and the civil enforcement of subpoenas, and discusses the obstacles that face Congress in enforcing a contempt action against an executive branch official.
Date: August 14, 2012
Creator: Garvey, Todd & Dolan, Alissa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress

Description: The ongoing uprising in Libya against the government of Muammar al Qadhafi has been the subject of ongoing domestic and international debate about potential international military intervention, including the proposed establishment of a no-fly zone over Libya. This report discusses several related issues for Congress surrounding the strategy, international authorization, congressional authorization, operations, and costs of establishing and maintaining no-fly zones.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Gertler, Jeremiah; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Daggett, Stephen; Dale, Catherine; Elsea, Jennifer K. & Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

No-Fly Zones: Strategic, Operational, and Legal Considerations for Congress

Description: This report discusses the establishment of no-fly zones and several related issues for Congress surrounding the strategy, including international authorization, congressional authorization, operations, and costs of establishing and maintaining no-fly zones.
Date: April 4, 2011
Creator: Gertler, Jeremiah; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Daggett, Stephen; Dale, Catherine; Elsea, Jennifer K. & Grimmett, Richard F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Commissions: Costs and Cost-Saving Strategies

Description: This report discusses the congressional commissions, which are temporary advisory bodies, usually established by statute, that provide independent advice to Congress, make recommendations for changes in public policy, study or investigate a particular problem or event, or perform a specific duty.
Date: December 19, 2014
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Membership and Appointment Authority to Advisory Commissions, Boards, and Groups

Description: This report contains a compilation of commissions and boards that demonstrate the range of alternative membership-appointment structures. It includes any statutorily-created advisory entity (boards, advisory panels, etc.) whose membership scheme mandates the participation of members of Congress either as potential members or as participants in the process of appointing the membership. For each entity, information on the purpose, duration, appointment structure, and term of appointment is provided. Finally, information on the involvement of members of Congress in the appointment process is presented in a series of tables.
Date: May 21, 2014
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Election Year Restrictions on Mass Mailings by Members of Congress: How H.R. 2056 Would Change Current Law

Description: Current law prohibits the franking of mass mailings by Senators fewer than 60 days, and by House Members fewer than 90 days, prior to any primary or general election in which the Member is a candidate. This report discusses H.R. 2056, which would amend Title 39, United States Code, by altering the prohibition for both Senators and House Members to the period starting 90 days prior to any primary and ending on the day of the general election, unless the Member has made a public announcement that the Member will not be a candidate for reelection to any federal office.
Date: August 20, 2010
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Franking Privilege: Mass Mailings and Mass Communications in the House, 1997-2014

Description: This report provides an analysis of House Member mass mailings (1997-2008, 2012-2014) and mass communications (2009-2014). Despite significant reductions in congressional mail postage costs over the past 25 years, critics continue to raise concerns about the franking privilege.
Date: May 6, 2015
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House Committee Funding: Description of Process and Analysis of Disbursements

Description: This report is organized in three sections. The first provides an overview of the committee funding process in the House and analyzes funding levels since 1995. The second reviews House floor and committee action on committee funding in the 112th Congress. The final section summarizes the rules and regulations that structure the use of committee funds, and analyzes actual committee funding spending patterns during five previous years.
Date: March 13, 2013
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Member Organizations: Their Purpose and Activities, History, and Formation

Description: This report examines the historical development and contemporary role of congressional Member organizations (CMOs) in the House and informal Member groups in both the House and the Senate. It discusses the differences between CMOs and informal Member groups, and the reasons Members form these groups with a step-by-step guide for House Members and staff who might be interested in forming a CMO. The report also presents the rise and fall of legislative service organizations (LSOs), the House's decision in 1995 to issue regulations for establishing CMOs and governing their behavior, and the subsequent regulation of CMOs in the House by the Committee on House Oversight/Committee on House Administration.
Date: February 10, 2015
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E. & Dilger, Robert Jay
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Commissions: Overview, Structure, and Legislative Considerations

Description: This report provides an overview and analysis of congressional advisory commissions, information on the general statutory structure of a congressional commission, and a catalog of congressional commissions created since the 101st Congress.
Date: January 27, 2015
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E. & Straus, Jacob R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Careers: Service Tenure and Patterns of Member Service, 1789-2015

Description: This report presents data on Member tenure and a historical analysis of tenure trends. During the 19th century, the average service of Representatives and Senators remained roughly constant, with little or no change over time; the average years of service was slightly higher for the first half of the century than during the second. During the late 19th and through the 20th century, the average years of service for Senators and Representatives steadily increased.
Date: January 3, 2015
Creator: Glassman, Matthew E. & Wilhelm, Amber H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department