Congressional Research Service Reports - 726 Matching Results

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Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues

Description: This report provides a brief overview of key legal issues related to recent insourcing initiatives. Recent Congresses and the Obama Administration have taken numerous actions to promote "insourcing," or the use of government personnel to perform functions that contractors previously performed on behalf of federal agencies. Among other things, the 109th through the 111th Congresses enacted several statutes requiring the development of policies and guidelines to ensure that agencies "consider" using government employees to perform functions previously performed by contractors, as well as any new function.
Date: June 8, 2011
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Maskell, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

Description: The term "budget process," when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President's budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations.
Date: March 3, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Description: This report describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. Finally, sample documents that could be used by congressional offices at various stages of the nomination selection process are included.
Date: July 5, 2011
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Nominations to U.S. Service Academies: An Overview and Resources for Outreach and Management

Description: This report, which will be updated as warranted, describes statutory requirements for allocating congressional nominations to service academies. It also identifies the qualifications that must be met by potential nominees, as established by statute and each academy. Finally, sample documents that could be used by congressional offices at various stages of the nomination selection process are included.
Date: October 7, 2010
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congress's Contempt Power and the Enforcement of Congressional Subpoenas: A Sketch

Description: This report examines the source of Congress's contempt power, analyzes the procedures associated with inherent contempt, criminal contempt, and the civil enforcement of subpoenas, and discusses the obstacles that face Congress in enforcing a contempt action against an executive branch official.
Date: August 14, 2012
Creator: Garvey, Todd & Dolan, Alissa M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Motions to Proceed to Consider Measures in the Senate: Who Offers Them?

Description: This report examines motions to proceed to consider items of legislative business ("measures"); it does not cover nominations or treaties ("executive business"). Motions to proceed to legislative business are normally debatable unless the underlying measure is "privileged," which includes conference reports and measures subject to statutory expedited procedures. The data in this report do not distinguish between debatable and non-debatable motions to proceed.
Date: May 18, 2015
Creator: Beth, Richard S. & Oleszek, Mark J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic Continuing Resolutions: Background and Overview of Recent Proposals

Description: This report begins by providing background on the historic frequency of federal funding gaps. Then, four major features of automatic continuing resolution (ACR) proposals since the 1980s -- time frame, funding level, activities, and duration -- are explained. This is followed by a summary of the major arguments for and against the enactment of an ACR. Finally, the last three sections of the report review congressional action that has taken place on ACR proposals, describe ACR proposals that have been introduced but not enacted during the 112th and 113th Congresses, and provide brief analysis of P.L. 113-39.
Date: October 28, 2013
Creator: Tollestrup, Jessica
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Redistricting and the Voting Rights Act: A Legal Overview

Description: This report provides a legal overview of Section 2 of the VRA, a key provision affecting congressional redistricting, and selected Supreme Court case law. It discusses Sections 4 and 5, and the recent Supreme Court decision holding Section 4(b) unconstitutional, Shelby County v. Holder. Section 4 contained a coverage formula that identified states and jurisdictions that were required to gain federal approval or "preclearance" to proposed redistricting plans under Section 5. The report also provides an overview of selected legislation in the 112th and 113th Congresses that would establish additional requirements and standards for congressional redistricting.
Date: August 30, 2013
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEMORANDUM: Preliminary assessment of efficiency initiatives announced by Secretary of Defense Gates on August 9, 2010

Description: On August 9, 2010, Secretary of Defense Gates announced a number of efficiency initiatives intended to contribute to a Defense Department effort to achieve about $100 billion of savings over the next five years. The Defense Department's intent is not to reduce the defense "top line" budget, but, rather, to apply any savings to finance currently planned programs. This report contains an order-of-magnitude analysis of amounts of money currently spent in each of the major areas Secretary Gates identified for savings.
Date: August 12, 2010
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the shift in the international security environment from a post Cold-War era to a new one with new priorities, strategies, and needs and implications for U.S. defense policy. Topics discussed include past security environments and indicators of a new one and various areas of defense policy affected.
Date: August 16, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Introduction to the Legislative Process in the U.S. Congress

Description: This report introduces the main steps through which a bill (or other item of business) may travel in the legislative process--from introduction to committee and floor consideration to possible presidential consideration. However, the process by which a bill can become law is rarely predictable and can vary significantly from bill to bill. In fact, for many bills, the process will not follow the sequence of congressional stages that are often understood to make up the legislative process.This report presents a look at each of the common stages through which a bill may move, but complications and variations abound in practice.
Date: April 7, 2017
Creator: Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2009

Description: This report discusses the history and current status of African Americans in Congress. There are 42 African American Members serving in the 111th Congress, 41 in the House of Representatives and one in the Senate. There have been 125 African American Members of Congress: 119 have been elected to the House; five have been elected to the Senate; and one has been appointed to the Senate. There have been 98 Democrats: 95 in the House, three in the Senate; and 27 Republicans: 24 in the House, three in the Senate.
Date: February 2, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile

Description: Report that presents a profile of the membership of the 113th Congress (2013-2014). Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age, occupation, education, length of congressional service, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Date: May 29, 2013
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beginning and End of the Terms of United States Senators Chosen to Fill Senate Vacancies

Description: This report discusses the procedures for when a Senator is chosen to fill a Senate vacancy during a session of Congress, i.e., when the appointed Senator can begin his or her term of office, and how long the Senator remains in office (until the new "Senator-elect" is sworn in and seated by the Senate).
Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Maskell, Jack
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress. It will be updated when there are relevant changes in the makeup of Congress.
Date: September 27, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E. & Shogan, Colleen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress.
Date: February 24, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Shogan, Colleen J. & Navarro Smelcer, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2011

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) congressional districts of the 274 women who have served in Congress.
Date: March 18, 2011
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.; Shogan, Colleen J. & Smelcer, Susan Navarro
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department