Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill: Fact Sheet on Structure, Content, and Process

Description: This report discusses the legislative branch appropriations bill, which is one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress normally enacts each year for the fiscal year beginning on October 1. The report provides budget authority, which is statutory authority to spend specified amounts of money, for expenditures of the legislative branch for the fiscal year, including salaries.
Date: December 30, 1999
Creator: Tong, Lorraine H
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 106th Congress

Description: This report describes the procedures under which committee funding resolutions are considered in the two chambers, and 106th Congress action to review and approve committee operating budgets. Also noted are changes in the Senate’s committee funding processes to move from a session-based biennial funding process to one more closely matched to a fiscal year cycle. Tables at the end of the report show funds approved for the 105th Congress, and the funds requested, recommended, and approved for the 106th Congress for each House and Senate committee.
Date: November 3, 1999
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S. & Bullock, Faye M
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Committee Markup Process in the House of Representatives

Description: This report discusses aspects of the process by which House committees mark up and report legislation. Among the subjects discussed are: selecting the text to be marked up, offering and debating amendments, and making motions to conclude debates during markups. The report also discusses relevant rules and practices concerning motions, quorums, votes, points of order, and parliamentary inquiries.
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decorum in House Debate

Description: The basic standards of decorum that govern remarks made in the House of Representatives are described in this report. The report also discusses the procedure for "words taken down" and other mechanisms used in the House for enforcing these standards. The standards and mechanisms covered here include those set forth in House rules, related sections of Jefferson's Manual, published precedents, and supplementary policy statements by the Speaker. Also provided are examples from the 103rd-105th Congress of words spoken in House floor debate that led to one or more enforcement mechanisms being invoked.
Date: October 26, 1999
Creator: Mulvihill, Mary
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disaster Mitigation Bills in the 106th Congress: H.R. 707, S. 1691 Compared

Description: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act authorizes the President to declare that an emergency or major disaster exists that overwhelms state and local resources. Legislation before the 106th Congress (H.R. 707 and S. 1691) would, among other matters, amend the Act to: (1) fund hazard mitigation projects designed to reduce future disaster losses; (2) add conditions to assistance; and (3) consolidate provisions governing the distribution of aid to disaster victims. This report compares provisions of the two bills, and will be updated as legislative action occurs.
Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: Bea, Keith
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Election of the President and Vice President by Congress: Contingent Election

Description: The 12th Amendment to the Constitution requires that candidates for President and Vice President receive a majority of electoral votes (currently 270 or more of a total of 538) to be elected. If no candidate receives a majority, the President is elected by the House of Representatives, and the Vice President is elected by the Senate. This process is referred to as contingent election and is the topic of discussion in this report.
Date: August 16, 1999
Creator: Neale, Thomas H
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999

Description: Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. These medals should not be confused with the Medal of Honor, which is presented “in the name of the Congress of the United States,” and is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Regulations for the Medal of Honor are established by the armed services. Congressional Gold Medals, conversely, can only be approved by Congress. This report provides a response to such inquiries and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards intended to assist Members of Congress in their consideration of future proposals to award Congressional Gold Medals. It will be updated annually.
Date: August 9, 1999
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Congressional Appropriations Process: An Introduction

Description: This report describes the annual appropriations cycle from the President’s submission of his annual budget through enactment of the appropriations measures. It describes the three types of appropriations measures—regular appropriations bills, continuing resolutions, and supplemental bills. It explains the spending ceilings for appropriations bills that are associated with the budget resolution and the sequestration process, including a description of the mechanisms used to enforce the ceilings. It also explains the authorization appropriations process, which prohibits certain provisions in some of the appropriations bills.
Date: August 3, 1999
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Introducing a House Bill or Resolution

Description: This report discusses the primary steps for drafting a bill in the House. Ideas and recommendations for legislation may come from private sources, such as ordinary citizens or interest groups; executive branch agencies and the White House; state and local initiatives; and, of course, individual Members, committees and other work groups, and party and chamber leaders. Any or all of these entities may also participate in drafting legislation (resolutions as well as bills).
Date: August 3, 1999
Creator: Sachs, Richard C
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Policy Roles of the President and Congress

Description: he United States Constitution divides foreign policy powers between the President and the Congress so that both share in the making of foreign policy. The executive and legislative branches each play important roles that are different but that often overlap. Both branches have continuing opportunities to initiate and change foreign policy, and the interaction between them continues indefinitely throughout the life of a policy. This report reviews and illustrates 12 basic ways that the United States can make foreign policy.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Grimmett, Richard F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Budget Act Points of Order

Description: Title III of the Congressional Budget Act (CBA) of 1974 (P.L. 93-344), as amended, establishes the points of order that are used to enforce congressional budget procedures and substantive provisions of a budget resolution. These points of order prohibit certain congressional actions and consideration of certain legislation.
Date: April 20, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

House and Senate Rules of Procedure: A Comparison

Description: This report compares selected House and Senate rules of procedure governing various stages of the legislative process: referral of legislation to committees; scheduling and calling up measures; and floor consideration. The appendices provide sources of additional information about House and Senate rules of procedure.
Date: April 7, 1999
Creator: Rundquist, Paul; Schneider, Judy & Tong, Lorraine H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department