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Bills and Resolutions: Examples of How Each Kind is Used

Description: This report provides background information regarding the bill and joint resolution, which must be passed by both houses in identical form, then presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.
Date: January 27, 1999
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bills, Resolutions, Nominations, and Treaties: Origins, Deadlines, Requirements, and Uses

Description: In addition to bill and/or joint resolution this report presents two other acts of congress; 1) nominations and 2) treaties. It also discusses the characteristics and uses of six different kind of business before Congress, such as designation, origin, deadline for action, requirements for approval, and use.
Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Beth, Richard S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engrossment, Enrollment, and Presentation of Legislation

Description: Engrossment, enrollment, and presentation of legislation are technical components of the legislative process. They attest to the accuracy of bill texts, confirm passage by the House and Senate, and confirm delivery of the bills to the President for his review.
Date: March 2, 1999
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislative Branch Staffing, 1954-2007

Description: This report provides data and analysis concerning legislative branch staffing levels since 1954. Legislative branch staff include congressional staff, who work in the House or Senate, and legislative agency staff, who work in a legislative branch agency. At present, there is no legislation pending before Congress to change existing staff arrangements in Congress or legislative branch agencies. As policies and issues before Congress continue to proliferate in volume and complexity, new proposals for change in staffing levels or changes in the balance between congressional staff and legislative agency staff may emerge. This report, which will be updated annually, is one of several CRS products focusing on various aspects of congressional operations and administration.
Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Petersen, Eric R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Membership of the 111th Congress: A Profile

Description: This report presents a profile of the membership of the 111th Congress. Statistical information is included on selected characteristics of Members, including data on party affiliation, average age and length of service, occupation, religious affiliation, gender, ethnicity, foreign births, and military service.
Date: December 27, 2010
Creator: Manning, Jennifer E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Senate Vacancies: Contemporary Developments and Perspectives

Description: This report provides information on current vacancies in the Senate, the constitutional origins of the Senate vacancy clause, the appointment process by which most vacancies are filled, and related contemporary issues.
Date: March 10, 2017
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2001

Description: This report identifies the committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 209 women Members of Congress.
Date: August 20, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1789-2001

Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Date: July 12, 2001
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Investigations: Subpoenas and Contempt Power

Description: When conducting investigations of the executive branch, congressional committees and Members of Congress generally receive the information required for legislative needs. If agencies fail to cooperate or the President invokes executive privilege, Congress can turn to a number of legislative powers that are likely to compel compliance. The two techniques described in this report are the issuance of subpoenas and the holding of executive officials in contempt. These techniques usually lead to an accommodation that meets the needs of both branches. Litigation is used at times, but federal judges generally encourage congressional and executive parties to settle their differences out of court. The specific examples in this report explain how information disputes arise and how they are resolved.
Date: April 2, 2003
Creator: Fisher, Louis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2004

Description: Thirty-nine black Members serve in the 107th Congress, all in the House of Representatives. In 210 years of congressional history, there have been 107 black Members of Congress: 103 elected to the House and four to the Senate. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Date: March 4, 2004
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2003

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 219 women Members of Congress.
Date: September 10, 2003
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health Benefits for Members of Congress

Description: Report that covers health benefits made available to Members of Congress through federal government employment, including Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), dental and vision insurance, flexible spending accounts, long-term care insurance, services at the Office of the Attending Physician and military hospitals, and Medicare. It also offers a comparison of FEHBP to health benefits offered by the private sector and state and local governments and a discussion of the effect of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on Members' health benefits.
Date: November 30, 2012
Creator: Cornell, Ada S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Salaries of Members of Congress: Recent Actions and Historical Tables

Description: This report discusses recent fiscal year Congressional pay raise freezes and provides: historical tables on the rate of pay for Members of Congress since 1789; details on enacted legislation with language prohibiting the automatic annual pay adjustment since the most recent adjustment; the adjustments projected by the Ethics Reform Act as compared with actual adjustments in Member pay; and Member pay in constant and current dollars since 1992.
Date: January 9, 2018
Creator: Brudnick, Ida A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress: 1917-2005

Description: This report identifies the names, committee assignments, dates of service, and (for Representatives) districts of the 228 women Members of Congress.
Date: June 21, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Black Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2005

Description: Forty three black or African-American Members serve in the 109th Congress; 42 in the House of Representatives, one in the Senate. There have been 117 black Members of Congress: 112 elected to the House and five to the Senate. The majority of the black Members (90) have been Democrats; the rest (27) have been Republicans. This report includes alphabetical listing of black members, selected biographical information, and committee assignments during their tenure in office.
Date: August 4, 2005
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress

Description: This report identifies women who have served as U.S. Senators or Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships.
Date: April 24, 1985
Creator: Amer, Mildred L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in the United States Congress

Description: This report identifies women who have served as Senators or as Members of the House of Representatives. It notes their party affiliation, the States they have represented, the dates of their appointment or election, the length of their service, their committee assignments, and their service in committee chairmanships.
Date: July 13, 1983
Creator: Schwemle, Barbara L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department