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Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Advertising Industry in the Digital Age

Description: This report discusses regulatory challenges faced by policymakers as the advertising industry enters a period of far-reaching change brought about by the economic downturn and structural shifts as consumers move to the Internet and other digital platforms for news, entertainment, and socializing.
Date: November 9, 2009
Creator: Kirchhoff, Suzanne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Speechwriting in Perspective: A Brief Guide to Effective and Persuasive Communication

Description: This report seeks to provide some guidance for congressional staff on the principles and practice of speechwriting. The suggestions offered herein, when combined with practice, attention to audience and occasion, and, most importantly, the Member’s attitudes, convictions, and style, can help create a speech that can be a “seamless garment” when delivered by the Member.
Date: April 12, 2007
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Description: his report examines federal law regarding obscenity and indecency. The First Amendment provides: “Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.” In general, the First Amendment protects pornography, with this term being used to mean any erotic material. The Supreme Court, however, has held that the First Amendment does not protect two types of pornography: obscenity and child pornography. Consequently, they may be banned on the basis of their content, and federal law prohibits the mailing of obscenity, as well as its transport or receipt in interstate or foreign commerce.
Date: January 21, 2009
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Obscenity and Indecency: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Description: This report examines federal law regarding obscenity and indecency. The First Amendment provides: “Congress shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.” In general, the First Amendment protects pornography, with this term being used to mean any erotic material. The Supreme Court, however, has held that the First Amendment does not protect two types of pornography: obscenity and child pornography. Consequently, they may be banned on the basis of their content, and federal law prohibits the mailing of obscenity, as well as its transport or receipt in interstate or foreign commerce.
Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Printing Reform: Issues and Actions

Description: The Government Printing Office (GPO) is designated the principal agent for almost all federal government printing. This report reviews recent legal, management, policy, and technological challenges to the GPO printing system and public printing reform efforts of the 105th, 106th, and current Congresses, and tracks current efforts to address existing problems in this area.
Date: May 10, 2002
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post Office and Retail Postal Facility Closures: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: The United States Postal Service (USPS) announced in May 2009 that it was considering the closure of 3,105 of its 4,851 post office branches and stations. Since the original announcement, the USPS has indicated that the number of possible closures may be more than 3,200. This report provides (1) information on this recent announcement; (2) historical data on the number of post offices and other retail postal facilities; (3) an explanation of the legal authorities relevant to retail postal facility closures; (4) a review of the retail postal facility closure processes, including data on public appeals of closures, and H.R. 658's proposed alterations to the processes; and (5) a concluding discussion that suggests observations and possible issues for Congress.
Date: July 23, 2009
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post Office and Retail Postal Facility Closures: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides information on the announcement that the United States Postal Service was considering the closure of 3,105 branches; historical data on the number of post offices and other retail postal facilities; an explanation of the legal authorities relevant to retail postal facility closures; a review of the retail postal facility closure processes, including data on public appeals of closures, and H.R. 658's proposed alterations to the processes; and a concluding discussion that suggests observations and possible issues for Congress.
Date: July 23, 2009
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Naming Post Offices Through Legislation

Description: This report describes how the practice of naming post offices through public law originated and how it is commonly done today. House and Senate practices for approving such legislation, and procedures followed by the U.S. Postal Service in organizing a dedication ceremony, are also described.
Date: July 3, 2003
Creator: Stevens, Nye
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open Access Publishing and Citation Archives: Background and Controversy

Description: This report begins with an inventory of basic information: definitions and guides to histories of the growth of open access publishing and citation archives and descriptions of selected major open access activities. It moves on to summarize major points of difference between proponents and opponents of nongovernmental open access publishing and databases, and then highlights federal, including National Institutes of Health (NIH), open access activities and contentious issues surrounding these developments. The report also briefly describes open access developments in the United Kingdom (where a number of governmental and nongovernmental initiatives have occurred) and in the international arena. Finally, controversial issues which could receive attention in the 109th Congress are summarized.
Date: May 5, 2006
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries

Description: This report discusses the changing of ZIP Code system and the implications of such an action. The process places responsibility on district managers, rather than local postmasters, to review requests for boundary adjustment, to evaluate costs and benefits of alternative solutions to identified problems, and to provide a decision within 60 days.
Date: June 23, 2006
Creator: Stevens, Nye
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: This report describes Congress's pursuit of postal reform, and summarizes the major provisions of the new postal reform law. The report also suggests PAEA-related oversight issues for Congress. President George W. Bush signed the Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act (PAEA; P.L. 109-435; 120 Stat. 3198) on December 20, 2006. The PAEA was the first broad revision of the 1970 statute that replaced the U.S. Post Office with the U.S. Postal Service (USPS), a self-supporting, independent agency of the executive branch.
Date: December 14, 2009
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Printing: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides an overview and analysis of issues related to the processing and distribution of congressional information by the Government Printing Office. Subsequent sections address several issues, including funding congressional printing, printing authorizations, current printing practices, and options for Congress. Finally, the report provides congressional printing appropriations, production, and distribution data in a number of tables.
Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Petersen, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Newspaper Industry in Transition

Description: This report analyzes China's mixed record on human rights: major human rights problems, new human rights legislation, and the development of civil society, legal awareness, and social and political activism. This report discusses major areas of interest but does not provide an exhaustive account of all human rights abuses or related incidents.
Date: July 8, 2009
Creator: Kirchoff, Suzanne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Services for Constituents Available in Spanish: Selected Sources

Description: This report is a directory of sources on various federal constituent services available in Spanish to assist congressional offices in serving Spanish-speaking constituents. The topics covered are: access to jobs and workers’ issues, Americans with Disabilities Act, childcare, consumer protection, disaster relief, elder care, emergency management, emergency preparedness, environmental protection, Federal Bureau of Investigation, food safety, health, higher education, homeland security, housing, immigration, immunizations, Medicaid, Medicare, the Presidency, retirement, Small Business Administration, Social Security Administration, taxes, telephone service, travel and tourism, veterans affairs, and voting.
Date: March 14, 2003
Creator: Wu, Leneice & Shapiro, Sherry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Services for Constituents Available in Foreign Languages: Selected Sources

Description: This report is a directory of sources on various federal constituent services available in foreign languages, to assist congressional offices in serving non-English speaking constituents. The topics covered are: access to jobs and workers’ issues, Americans with Disabilities Act, childcare, consumer protection, disaster relief, elder care, emergency preparedness, environmental protection, Federal Bureau of Investigation, food safety, health, higher education, homeland security, housing, immigration, immunizations, Medicaid, Medicare, the Presidency, retirement, Small Business Administration, Social Security Administration, taxes, telephone service, travel and tourism, veterans affairs, and voting.
Date: March 14, 2003
Creator: Wu, Leneice & Shapiro, Sherry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Postal Service and Six-Day Delivery: Issues for Congress

Description: This report will examine the history of six-day mail delivery and analyze potential effects of reducing USPS delivery from six to five days. It will then examine legislative options for the 111th Congress.
Date: June 9, 2009
Creator: Ginsberg, Wendy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Newspaper Industry in Transition

Description: This report analyzes the current crises that the U.S. newspaper industry is facing in light of the recent economic downturn and the increasing number of readers who turn to the Internet for their news instead of to traditional media. Congress has begun debating whether the financial problems in the newspaper industry pose a public policy issue that warrants federal action.
Date: July 8, 2009
Creator: Kirchoff, Suzanne M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Going to Conference in the Senate

Description: This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee.
Date: April 21, 2003
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth & Bach, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Going to Conference in the Senate

Description: This report discusses the steps that the Senate must take, and one more step that it may take, as it arranges to send a bill to conference committee.
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Bach, Stanley
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The FCC's Political Broadcasting Regulations

Description: This report provides an overview of the Federal Communication Commission's political broadcasting regulations, including general public interest obligations; the equal opportunity (equal time) regulations; and the various interpretations of the Fairness Doctrine, which is no longer enforced by the Commission. A brief section of frequently asked questions regarding political broadcasting is also provided.
Date: October 27, 2004
Creator: Welborn, Angie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department