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Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Recent Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Description: Many Members of Congress see continued tension between "free speech" decisions of the Supreme Court, which protect flag desecration as expressive conduct under the First Amendment, and the symbolic importance of the United States flag. This report is divided into two parts. The first gives a brief history of the flag protection issue, from the enactment of the Flag Protection Act in 1968 through current consideration of a constitutional amendment. The second part briefly summarizes the two decisions of the United States Supreme Court, Texas v. Johnson and United States v. Eichman, that struck down the state and federal flag protection statutes as applied in the context punishing expressive conduct.
Date: January 7, 2009
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flag Protection: A Brief History and Summary of Supreme Court Decisions and Proposed Constitutional Amendments

Description: This report is divided into two parts. The first gives a brief history of the flag protection issue, from the enactment of the Flag Protection Act in 1968 through current consideration of a constitutional amendment. The second part briefly summarizes the two decisions of the United States Supreme Court, Texas v. Johnson and United States v. Eichman, that struck down the state and federal flag protection statutes as applied in the context punishing expressive conduct.
Date: January 20, 2011
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United States Flag: Federal Law Relating to Display and Associated Questions

Description: This report presents, verbatim, the United States "Flag Code" as found in Title 4 of the United States Code and the section of Title 36 which designates the Star-Spangled Banner as the national anthem and provides instructions on how to display the flag during its rendition. The report also addresses several of the frequently asked questions concerning the flag.
Date: January 24, 2011
Creator: Luckey, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

Description: This report discusses in detail the evolution of a national critical infrastructure policy and the institutional structures established to implement it. The report highlights three issues of Congressional concern: allocating resources based on risk; information sharing; and, regulation.
Date: April 18, 2006
Creator: Moteff, John D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Observances 1997 and 1998: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: August 13, 1998
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: May 21, 2002
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: December 4, 2002
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: April 28, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: August 21, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Observances: A Chronological List

Description: Historically, national commemorative observances were recommended by Congress through the legislative process. This practice was discontinued by the House of Representatives in January 1995, although the Senate continues to issue sense of the Senate resolutions recommending the establishment of commemoratives. It has now become standard practice for special observances to be designated by a proclamation issued by the President. This report is a chronological list of these proclamations for 1997 and 1998, indicating the proclamation number and its Federal Register citation
Date: February 12, 2003
Creator: Richardson, Glenda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medal of Honor: History and Issues

Description: This report briefly describes the history of the Medal of Honor (MoH) as well as the criteria and rules used in awarding the medal. It also lists the benefits that are made available to MoH recipients and describes the process involved in reconsidering an individual for receipt of the medal (including what assistance a Member may provide in this process).
Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Salazar Torreon, Barbara
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards

Description: This report is designed to help congressional offices obtain information about major awards given by Congress and the President. It lists details about the establishment, criteria, selection process, and presentation of each of the major presidential and congressional awards: Congressional Award, Congressional Gold Medal, Medal of Honor, Presidential Citizens Medal, and Presidential Medal of Freedom. Brief entries are provided for additional awards made by the President including two new military medals for service in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT): the GWOT Expeditionary Medal and the GWOT Service Medal. Contact information for the organization responsible for making the award and for more data about an award is provided. References to CRS products on awards are also given.
Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Salazar, Barbara A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Guide to Major Congressional and Presidential Awards

Description: This report is designed to help congressional offices obtain information about major awards given by Congress and the President. It lists details about the establishment, criteria, selection process, and presentation of each of the major presidential and congressional awards: Congressional Award, Congressional Gold Medal, Medal of Honor, Presidential Citizens Medal, and Presidential Medal of Freedom. Brief entries are provided for additional awards made by the President including two new military medals for service in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT): the GWOT Expeditionary Medal and the GWOT Service Medal. Contact information is provided for the organization responsible for making the award and for more data about an award. References to CRS products on awards are also given. This report will be updated as necessary.
Date: December 16, 2003
Creator: Salazar, Barbara A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals 1776-1999

Description: Since the American Revolution, Congress has commissioned gold medals as its highest expression of national appreciation for distinguished achievements and contributions. These medals should not be confused with the Medal of Honor, which is presented “in the name of the Congress of the United States,” and is often referred to as the Congressional Medal of Honor. Regulations for the Medal of Honor are established by the armed services. Congressional Gold Medals, conversely, can only be approved by Congress. This report provides a response to such inquiries and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards intended to assist Members of Congress in their consideration of future proposals to award Congressional Gold Medals. It will be updated annually.
Date: August 9, 1999
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2003

Description: Members of Congress and their staff frequently ask questions concerning the nature, history, and contemporary application of the process for awarding Gold Medals. This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning this process, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards. It is intended to assist Members of Congress and staff in their consideration of future Gold Medal proposals, and will be updated as Gold Medals are approved.
Date: November 14, 2003
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals 1776-2003

Description: This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the process for awarding Congressional Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards.
Date: July 23, 2003
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2004

Description: This report responds to congressional inquiries concerning the process for awarding Congressional Gold Medals, and includes a historical examination and chronological list of these awards.
Date: November 23, 2004
Creator: Stathis, Stephen W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monuments and Memorials Authorized and Completed Under the Commemorative Works Act in the District of Columbia

Description: This report contains a catalog of the 18 authorized works that have been completed and dedicated since 1986. For each memorial, the report provides a rationale for each authorized work, as expressed by a Member of Congress, as well as the statutory authority for its creation; and identifies the group or groups which sponsored the commemoration, the memorial's location, and the dedication date. A picture of each work is also included.
Date: October 9, 2014
Creator: Straus, Jacob R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monuments and Memorials in the District of Columbia: Analysis and Options for Proposed Exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act

Description: This report focuses on options for Congress for three types of exemptions to the Commemorative Works Act (CWA, 40 U.S.C. §§8901-8909): siting works, donor recognition, and the placement and status of museums, which are generally not considered commemorative works.
Date: September 24, 2013
Creator: Straus, Jacob R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorative Days, Weeks, and Months: Background and Current Practice

Description: This report summarizes the different types of commemorative time periods--federal holidays; patriotic and national observances; and commemorative days, weeks, and months. Second, it discusses the current rules in the House and Senate that govern this type of legislation. Finally, the report discusses options for Congress, including introducing legislation in the House and Senate, and asking the president to issue a proclamation.
Date: March 25, 2016
Creator: Straus, Jacob R. & Nagel, Jared C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commemorations in Congress: Options for Honoring Individuals, Groups, and Events

Description: This report summarizes the evolution of commemorative legislation as well as the laws, rules, and procedures that have been adopted to control the types of commemoratives considered and enacted.
Date: April 22, 2015
Creator: Straus, Jacob R.; Christensen, Michelle D.; Elwell, Craig K.; Glassman, Matthew E.; Hatch, Garrett & Heitshusen, Valerie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

D-Day: The French Jubilee of Liberty Medal and the 60th Anniversary Commemoration on June 6, 2004, and Events for June 6, 2005

Description: This report details the Jubilee of Liberty Medal awarded to U.S. veterans by the French government to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the invasion of Normandy by the Allied forces on June 6, 1994 (D-Day).
Date: May 27, 2005
Creator: Torreon, Barbara Salazar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department