Congressional Research Service Reports - 114 Matching Results

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Civil Rights Opinions of U.S. Supreme Court Nominee Samuel Alito: A Legal Overview

Description: During his 15 years as a federal appellate judge on the Third Circuit, Judge Alito has written for the majority, concurred, or dissented in several cases alleging discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, religion, and other prohibited grounds. His legal positions in these cases have varied, depending on the facts and law being applied, and defy rigid or facile classification. Nonetheless, some continuity in judicial approach, both substantive and procedural, may arguably be discerned from a review of several of his significant opinions.
Date: December 12, 2005
Creator: Dale, Charles V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA): The Definition of Disability

Description: The threshold issue in any Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) case is whether the individual alleging discrimination is an individual with a disability. The ADA definition is a functional one and does not list specific disabilities. This report discusses the definition of "disability." It also briefly discusses the Supreme Court's opinions and analyze how the lower courts are interpreting the Supreme Court's holdings.
Date: March 9, 2006
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homosexuals and U.S. Military Policy: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses policy towards homosexuals in the U.S. military service. In 1993, new laws and regulations pertaining to homosexuals and U.S. military service came into effect reflecting a compromise in policy. This compromise, colloquially referred to as “don’t ask, don’t tell,” holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their homosexuality. This compromise notwithstanding, the issue has remained politically contentious.
Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Dale, Charles V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy

Description: The issue of women’s rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly (TNA). Over the past three years, the Bush Administration has reiterated its interest in ensuring that Iraqi women participate in politics and ongoing reconstruction efforts in Iraq. There has also been a widening debate regarding the extent to which the U.S.-led reconstruction efforts have been able to enhance women’s rights in Iraq and encourage their participation in Iraq’s governing institutions.
Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Pina, Aaron D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The War Crimes Act: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses current issues related to the War Crimes Act of 1996 and Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, which sets out minimum standards for the treatment of detainees in armed conflicts "not of an international character (e.g., civil wars, rebellions, and other conflicts between State and non-State actors).
Date: January 28, 2008
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

Description: This report reviews and analyzes the situation, concerns, and activities of Afro-descendants in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Latin America. It then discusses current U.S. foreign aid programs, as well as multilateral initiatives, that have directly or indirectly assisted Afro-Latinos. The report concludes with a discussion of potential policy options that have been proposed should the United States elect to provide further support for Afro-Latinos.
Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Seelke, Claire Ribando
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homosexuals and the U.S. Military: Current Issues

Description: This report examines "don't ask, don't tell," policy in the U.S. military. "Don't ask, don't tell," holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their homosexuality.
Date: July 18, 2008
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status

Description: This report examines initial responses to the 9/11 Commission's call for a board to oversee adherence to presidential guidelines on information sharing that safeguard the privacy of individuals about whom information is shared, and the implementation of this board.
Date: July 21, 2008
Creator: Relyea, Harold C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Date: August 5, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: History, Funding, and Current Issues

Description: This report provides a history of the establishment of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (Commission), including its funding, legislation expanding its authorities, and the philosophical differences concerning civil rights that have evolved during the past few decades that affect the agency's independence and effectiveness.
Date: October 3, 2008
Creator: Laney, Garrine P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Coverage of Contagious Diseases

Description: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), provides broad nondiscrimination protection for individuals with disabilities in employment public services, public accommodations and services operated by private entities, transportation, and telecommunication. This report briefly discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act's statutory provisions relating to contagious diseases and relevant judicial interpretations.
Date: October 15, 2008
Creator: Jones, Nancy Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer

Description: This report provides a brief overview of selected federal civil rights statutes. This report is intended to provide an introductory overview and comparison of the selected statutes and therefore does not address additional civil rights protections that may be available under state or local statutes or federal or state constitutional law.
Date: October 24, 2008
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW): Congressional Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and describes its background, objectives, and structure, including the role of the Convention's monitoring body, the CEDAW Committee. It examines U.S. policy and issues in the U.S. ratification debate, including the Convention's possible impact on U.S. sovereignty, its effectiveness in combating discrimination, and its role as an instrument of U.S. foreign policy.
Date: October 28, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 2009 U.N. Durban Review Conference: Follow-Up to the 2001 U.N. World Conference Against Racism

Description: This report provides information on the 2001 World Conference Against Racism and the circumstances of U.S. withdrawal. It discusses preparations for the Durban Review Conference, including U.S. policy and reaction from other governments. It highlights possible issues for the 111th Congress, including the Review Conference preparatory process, U.S. funding of the Conference, and the political and diplomatic impact of U.S. engagement.
Date: November 20, 2008
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The War Crimes Act: Current Issues

Description: This report discusses current issues related to the War Crimes Act of 1996 and Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, which sets out minimum standards for the treatment of detainees in armed conflicts "not of an international character (e.g., civil wars, rebellions, and other conflicts between State and non-State actors).
Date: January 22, 2009
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.N. Convention Against Torture (CAT): Overview and Application to Interrogation Techniques

Description: This report discusses the United Nations Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) requires signatory parties to take measures to end torture within their territorial jurisdiction and to criminalize all acts of torture.
Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Garcia, Michael J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. The report also highlights issues for the 111th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Date: May 12, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Homosexuals and the U.S. Military: Current Issues

Description: This report examines the "don't ask, don't tell," policy in the U.S. military. "Don't ask, don't tell," holds that the presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability. Service members are not to be asked about nor allowed to discuss their homosexuality.
Date: July 22, 2009
Creator: Burrelli, David F. & Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Background and Policy Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child's (CRC) background and structure and examines evolving U.S. policy toward the Convention, including past and current Administration positions and congressional perspectives. It also highlights issues for the 112th Congress, including the Convention's possible impact on federal and state laws, U.S. sovereignty, parental rights, and U.S. family planning and abortion policy.
Date: August 5, 2009
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department