Congressional Research Service Reports - 50 Matching Results

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Charlottesville Car Crash Attack: Possibility of Federal Criminal Prosecution

Description: This report discusses the announcement that the Charlottesville, Virginia car crash attack is being investigated as a federal civil rights case. It also outlines the sections of the federal law under which the attack could be classified.
Date: August 15, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congressional Redistricting and the Voting Rights Act: A Legal Overview

Description: This report provides a legal overview of two key provisions of the Voting Rights Act (VRA) affecting congressional redistricting โ€” Sections 2 and 5 โ€” and selected accompanying Supreme Court case law. It examines a pending Supreme Court case, Shelby County, Alabama v. Holder, challenging the constitutionality of Section 5. It also provides a summary of selected legislation in the 112th and 113th Congresses that would establish additional requirements and standards for congressional redistricting.
Date: April 2, 2013
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Don't Ask, Don't Tell": A Legal Analysis

Description: In recent years, several Members of Congress have expressed interest in amending "Don't Ask, Don't Tell," (DADT) a legislation that requires those of homosexual orientation in the military to keep quiet about their orientation in order to maintain "morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion." At least two bills that would repeal the law and replace it with a policy of nondiscrimination on the basis of sexual orientation - H.R. 1283 and S. 3065 - have been introduced in the 111th Congress. This report provides a legal analysis of the various constitutional challenges that have been brought against DADT; for a policy analysis, see CRS Report R40782, "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Military Policy and the Law on
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Don't Ask, Don't Tell": A Legal Analysis

Description: In 1993, after many months of study, debate, and political controversy, Congress passed and President Clinton signed legislation establishing a revised "[p]olicy concerning homosexuality in the armed forces." The new legislation reflected a compromise regarding the U.S. military's policy toward members of the armed forces who engage in homosexual conduct. This compromise, colloquially referred to as "Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT)," holds that "[t]he presence in the armed forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the high standards of morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion which are the essence of military capability." Service members are not to be asked about, nor allowed to discuss, their sexual orientation. This compromise notwithstanding, the issue has remained both politically and legally contentious. This report provides a legal analysis of the various constitutional challenges that have been brought against DADT.
Date: June 3, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Don't Ask, Don't Tell": A Legal Analysis

Description: In recent years, several Members of Congress have expressed interest in amending "Don't Ask, Don't Tell," (DADT) a legislation that requires those of homosexual orientation in the military to keep quiet about their orientation in order to maintain "morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion." At least two bills that would repeal the law and replace it with a policy of nondiscrimination on the basis of sexual orientation - H.R. 1283 and S. 3065 - have been introduced in the 111th Congress. This report provides a legal analysis of the various constitutional challenges that have been brought against DADT; for a policy analysis, see CRS Report R40782, "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Military Policy and the Law on
Date: November 2, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Don't Ask, Don't Tell": A Legal Analysis

Description: In recent years, several Members of Congress have expressed interest in amending "Don't Ask, Don't Tell," (DADT) a legislation that requires those of homosexual orientation in the military to keep quiet about their orientation in order to maintain "morale, good order and discipline, and unit cohesion." At least two bills that would repeal the law and replace it with a policy of nondiscrimination on the basis of sexual orientation - H.R. 1283 and S. 3065 - have been introduced in the 111th Congress. This report provides a legal analysis of the various constitutional challenges that have been brought against DADT; for a policy analysis, see CRS Report R40782, "Don't Ask, Don't Tell": Military Policy and the Law on Same-Sex Behavior, by David F. Burrelli.
Date: October 21, 2010
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fair Housing Act: HUD Oversight, Programs, and Activities

Description: This report discusses the Fair Housing Act from the perspective of the activities undertaken and programs administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and its Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO). After a brief summary of the Fair Housing Act, this report discusses each of these Fair Housing activities, as well as two other initiatives administered by FHEO, Limited English Proficiency and Section 3, the latter of which provides economic opportunities for low- and very low-income persons.
Date: May 5, 2017
Creator: Perl, Libby
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Civil Rights Statutes: A Primer

Description: Under federal law, an array of civil rights statutes are available to protect individuals from discrimination. This report provides a brief summary of selected federal civil rights statutes.
Date: March 26, 2012
Creator: Feder, Jody
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iran: Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Policy

Description: This report discusses Iran's political and governmental structure, major elections and political unrest (including the Dec. 2017-Jan 2018 protests), and human rights violations, as well as U.S. policy and relations with Iran.
Date: January 8, 2018
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Juneteenth: Fact Sheet

Description: This report describes Juneteenth (also known as Emancipation Day, Juneteenth Independence Day, and Black Independence Day), which celebrates the end of slavery in the United States.
Date: June 9, 2017
Creator: Higgins, Molly
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

March-In Rights Under the Bayh-Dole Act

Description: This report reviews the availability of march-in rights under the Bayh-Dole Act. It begins by providing a brief overview of the patent system and innovation policy, then introduces the Bayh-Dole Act. The report also reviews specific details of the march-in authority provided to federal agencies, considers past efforts to obtain march-in authorization from NIH, and identifies potential issues for congressional consideration.
Date: August 22, 2016
Creator: Thomas, John R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Military Personnel and Freedom of Religion: Selected Legal Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the requirements of the First Amendment related to military personnel's religious exercise. It analyzes current constitutional and statutory requirements regarding religious exercise, and provides a framework for how Congress and the courts might consider future issues that arise related to service members' religious exercise. Specifically, the report examines the limitations placed on service members in uniform in the exercise of their religious beliefs. It also examines the role of military chaplains and the legal challenges associated with publicly funding religious personnel. The report analyzes efforts by Congress and the Department of Defense to address the constitutional concerns that are raised by these issues.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Mason, R. Chuck & Brougher, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting

Description: This report discusses overarching trends in Millennium Development Goals (MDG) progress and lessons learned from previous and ongoing efforts to achieve them. The MDGs are a group of measurable development targets agreed to by 189 U.N. member states - including the United States - as part of the 2000 Millennium Declaration. The MDGs cover a number of issues, such as eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, combating HIV/AIDS, and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. This report examines U.S. policy toward the MDGs and how, if at all, the Goals fit into U.S. development and foreign assistance policy. It also examines different schools of thought regarding the effectiveness of the Goals, their role in international development, and their long-term sustainability. This report addresses the MDGs as a whole; it does not assess or analyze issues pertaining to the individual Goals.
Date: December 9, 2010
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Millennium Development Goals: The September 2010 U.N. High-level Meeting

Description: This report discusses overarching trends in Millennium Development Goals (MDG) progress and lessons learned from previous and ongoing efforts to achieve them. The MDGs are a group of measurable development targets agreed to by 189 U.N. member states - including the United States - as part of the 2000 Millennium Declaration. The MDGs cover a number of issues, such as eradicating extreme hunger and poverty, combating HIV/AIDS, and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment. This report examines U.S. policy toward the MDGs and how, if at all, the Goals fit into U.S. development and foreign assistance policy. It also examines different schools of thought regarding the effectiveness of the Goals, their role in international development, and their long-term sustainability. This report addresses the MDGs as a whole; it does not assess or analyze issues pertaining to the individual Goals.
Date: September 23, 2010
Creator: Blanchfield, Luisa & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Voter Registration Act of 1993: History, Implementation, and Effects

Description: This report discusses the Voting Rights Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. ยง1973โ€“1973aa-6), which required states to establish voter registration procedures for federal elections so that eligible citizens might apply to register to vote (1) simultaneously while applying for a driver's license, (2) by mail, and (3) at selected state and local offices that serve the public. The law took effect on January 1, 1995, for most states.
Date: September 18, 2013
Creator: Crocker, Royce
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Selected Federal Criminal Civil Rights Statutes

Description: Federal criminal civil rights laws impose criminal penalties for deprivation of certain federal rights, privileges, or immunities. These laws prohibit hate crimes based on race, color, religion, or national origin; the burning of places of worship; violence against health care providers; and the transport of persons (particularly women and children) for the purpose of enslavement or forced labor. Some of these laws require a discriminatory motivation while others, such as human trafficking, do not. Some cover offenders acting "under color of any law." The Federal Bureau of Investigation investigates alleged violations. Punishments can range from a fine to lifetime imprisonment; in some cases the death penalty may be imposed, depending upon the circumstances and the resulting injury, if any. This report provides a brief summary of selected federal criminal civil right statutes.
Date: December 16, 2014
Creator: Smith, Alison M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board: New Independent Agency Status

Description: This report examines initial responses to the 9/11 Commission's call for a board to oversee adherence to presidential guidelines on information sharing that safeguard the privacy of individuals about whom information is shared, and the implementation of this board.
Date: August 27, 2012
Creator: Hatch, Garrett
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department