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Child Welfare Issues in the 108th Congress
Child welfare services are intended to protect children who have been abused or neglected or are at risk of maltreatment. These services take various forms, ranging from counseling and other supports for parents — which are intended to improve child well-being and prevent child abuse and neglect — to removal of the children from their homes. At the most extreme, these services include termination of parental rights and placement of the children for adoption. This report describes child welfare legislative issues in the 108th Congress.
Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress
This report examines various legislative issues regarding Head Start, which is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low income children since 1965. The program is administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress
This report examines various legislative issues regarding Head Start, which is a federal program that has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low income children since 1965. The program is administered by the Administration for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Breastfeeding and Jury Duty: State Laws, Court Rules, and Related Issues
The fact that a state, a court system, or a single court does not have a law, rule, or formally written procedure does not necessarily mean that a breastfeeding mother will be compelled to serve on a jury. It appears that a general “medical exception” from jury duty may be applicable to breastfeeding mothers in some instances, and local practice and custom may influence an excuse or deferral from jury duty. It appears that many of the decisions concerning a nursing mother’s excuse or deferral from jury duty are handled on a case-by-case basis by the individual courts.
Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: Federal Assistance Programs
The impact on children of domestic violence was an issue of interest in the 109th Congress. The first session of the 109th Congress ended with the passage of the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-162), which contained new initiatives to address concerns about children and youth exposed to and victimized by domestic violence. This report discusses existing federal programs and initiatives that have been established to assist such children and youth, and new provisions enacted in P.L. 109-162.
The V-Chip and TV Ratings: Monitoring Children’s Access to TV Programming
This report discusses the V-Chip, created to assist parents in supervising the television viewing habits of their children, its rating system, and relevant legislation in the 109th and 110th Congress.
Unaccompanied Children from Central America: Foreign Policy Considerations
This report examines policy considerations for Congress in response to the recent influx of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) from Central American countries being apprehended at the U.S. border. The report also discusses the current policy framework and the Obama Administration's diplomatic response.
Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview
This report discusses the immigration problem regarding the number of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) arriving in the United States borders. The report discusses the scope of the problem, current policy challenges, and the processing and treatment of the UAC apprehended.
Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview
This report discusses the immigration problem regarding the number of unaccompanied alien children (UAC) arriving in the United States borders. The report discusses the scope of the problem, current policy challenges, and the processing and treatment of the UAC apprehended.
Unaccompanied Alien Children--Legal Issues: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses the questions regarding the numbers of unaccompanied alien children involved, their reasons for coming to the United States, and current and potential responses of the federal government and other entities to their arrival.
Legal Issues Relating to the Disposal of Dispensed Controlled Substances
This report describes an issue that is the fastest-growing drug problem in the country -- the intentional use of prescription drugs for non-medical purposes. It is the second-most common form of illicit drug abuse among teenagers in the United States behind marijuana use. Several bills have been introduced in the 111th Congress that would create a legal framework governing disposal of controlled substances that have been dispensed to patients.
Unaccompanied Alien Children: An Overview
This report opens with an analysis of recent unaccompanied alien children (UAC) apprehension data. It then discusses current policy on the treatment, care, and custody of the population, with a description of the responsibilities of each federal agency involved with the population. The report also discusses administrative and congressional actions to deal with the UAC surge in FY2014 and ongoing action to address possible future surges.
Supplemental Educational Services for Children from Low-Income Families Under ESEA Title I-A
This report discusses supplemental educational services in the general sense, which include educational activities provided outside of normal school hours that are designed to augment or enhance the educational services provided during regular periods of instruction.
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding
Several federal programs support child care, education, or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. This report includes an update on FY2010 funding developments and the status of FY2009 appropriations in the early childhood care and education arena. This report also provides a six-year funding history and brief descriptions of the various related programs and tax provisions.
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding
Federal support for child care and education comes in many forms, ranging from grant programs to tax provisions. This report provides a funding overview and brief background information on federal child care, early education, and related programs (and tax provisions).
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding
This report begins with information on current and historical funding levels for a selection of early childhood care and education programs and tax provisions. Table 1 presents information on the FY2016 Obama Administration’s budget request for such programs, while Table 2 provides a six-year funding history (FY2010-FY2015) for these early childhood care and education programs and tax provisions. The funding section is followed by a series of program summaries.
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding
Several federal programs support child care, education, or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. This report includes an update on FY2010 funding developments and the status of FY2009 appropriations in the early childhood care and education arena. This report also provides a six-year funding history and brief descriptions of the various related programs and tax provisions.
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs: Background and Funding
Federal support for child care and education comes in many forms, ranging from grant programs to tax provisions. This report provides a funding overview and brief background information on federal child care, early education, and related programs (and tax provisions).
Medicaid and SCHIP: FY2007 Budget Issues
This report provides information on Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) issues.
Medicaid and SCHIP: The President's FY2006 Budget Proposals
This report describes the proposal and provides an estimate of the cost or savings based on publicly available information. The report provides a brief background for the proposal and provides a listing of current Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports related to the proposal.
Amber Alert Program Technology
This report discusses provisions in the National Intelligence Reform Act of 2004 to test Amber Alert network technology for use in expanding the Emergency Alert System (EAS). The Amber Alert network utilizes a combination of technologies, such as highway messages boards, the Internet, and text messaging, to ensure the swift recovery of abducted children.
Child Care Issues in the 109th Congress
Federal support for child care comes in many forms, ranging from grant programs to tax provisions. Some programs serve as specifically dedicated funding sources for child care services (e.g., the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG)), while for others (e.g., Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)), child care is just one of many purposes for which funds may be used. This report discusses budget proposals in areas related to child care and early childhood development in the 109th Congress.
Early Childhood Care and Education Programs in the 110th Congress: Background and Funding
This report provides an overview of federal child care, early education, and related programs, and their funding status in the 110th Congress.
The Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2003: “Separate Offense” Provisions and Penalties
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Impact on States of Revised Redistribution of Unspent FY2002 SCHIP Allotments
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SCHIP Financing: Funding Projections and State Redistribution Issues
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Coverage of the TANF Population Under Medicaid and SCHIP
Health insurance is an important support for individuals receiving, leaving or diverted from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare or cash assistance program for low-income families. Medicaid and SCHIP (State Children’s Health Insurance Program) are key vehicles for providing such coverage. While there is no formal link between TANF and either Medicaid or SCHIP, some TANF-eligibles, especially children, are likely to qualify for one of these programs. But state eligibility rules can be complex and often differ for parents versus children, leaving some parents, in particular, without coverage.
Coverage of the TANF Population Under Medicaid and SCHIP
Health insurance is an important support for individuals receiving, leaving or diverted from the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare or cash assistance program for low-income families. Medicaid and SCHIP (State Children’s Health Insurance Program) are key vehicles for providing such coverage. While there is no formal link between TANF and either Medicaid or SCHIP, some TANF-eligibles, especially children, are likely to qualify for one of these programs. But state eligibility rules can be complex and often differ for parents versus children, leaving some parents, in particular, without coverage.
Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions
Title I, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to state and local educational agencies (SEAs, LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I grants are used to provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving children attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families. Services may be provided at pre-kindergarten through high school levels. Title I has been the anchor of the ESEA since it was first enacted in 1965, and is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program.
Amber Alert Program Technology
This report discusses Amber Alerts (also referred to as AMBER plans) which use technology to disseminate information about child abductions in a timely manner. Technologies used for alerts include the Emergency Alert System (EAS), highway messages boards, telephone alert systems, the Internet, text messaging, and email.
The Use of Seclusion and Restraint in Public Schools: The Legal Issues
Seclusion and restraint have been used in various situations to deal with violent or noncompliant behavior. Because of congressional interest in the use of seclusion and restraint in schools, including passage of H.R. 4247 and the introduction of S. 2860, 111th Congress, first session, this report focuses on the legal issues concerning the use of these techniques in schools, including their application both to children covered by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and to those not covered by IDEA.
Special Immigrant Juveniles: In Brief
This report provides a brief explanation of the statutory basis of special immigrant juvenile (SIJ) status and how it has evolved. It also presents statistics on the number of children who have applied for and received SIJ status since FY2005. The report concludes with a discussion of the applicability of SIJ status for unaccompanied alien children.
Child Support Enforcement: Program Basics
This report discusses the Child Support Enforcement (CSE) program that was enacted in 1975 as a federal-state program (Title IV-D of the Social Security Act) to help strengthen families by securing financial support for children from their noncustodial parent on a consistent and continuing basis and by helping some families to remain self-sufficient and off public assistance by providing the requisite CSE services.
Child Welfare and Child Support: The Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (P.L. 113-183)
This report begins with an overview and topical summary of the provisions of the Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act (H.R. 4980), which seeks to ensure that child welfare agencies are responsive to particular issues for children and youth in foster care or those who otherwise have contact with the child welfare system. The report follows this with a review of the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) cost estimate for H.R. 4980 and the legislative origins of the enacted bill.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Size and Characteristics of the Cash Assistance Caseload
This report examines the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance caseload, focusing on how the composition and characteristics of families receiving assistance have changed over time.
International Parental Child Abductions
This report discusses the applicability of the Hague Convention and current U.S. laws, both civil and criminal, which seek to address the quandary of children abducted by parents to foreign nations.
Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues
This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs, including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. Current federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education is debated are discussed.
Medicaid and Schools
This report discusses the recent history and current issues facing Medicaid funding for certain health related costs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF): Size and Characteristics of the Cash Assistance Caseload
This report examines the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance caseload, focusing on how the composition and characteristics of families receiving assistance have changed over time.
Early Childhood Education: Preschool Participation, Program Efficacy, and Federal Policy Issues
This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs, including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. It also discusses federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education.
Juvenile Justice Funding Trends
This report provides a brief overview of the juvenile justice grant programs and the overall appropriation administered by the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). There is no federal juvenile justice system, however the government uses federal juvenile justice entities and grant programs in order to influence the states' systems. Eligibility for some of these grant programs is tied to certain mandates that the states must adhere to in order to receive federal funding.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Issues in the U.S. Ratification Debate
This report discusses the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities; its purpose is to promote, protect, and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by persons with disabilities.
Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying
This report discusses Internet crimes, such as cyberbullying, cyberharassment, and cyberstalking, along with the limitations of such laws in the current environment. While Congress, under the Commerce Clause, has authority to regulate the Internet, Internet "harassment" presents new challenges for legislators in terms of defining and prosecuting such activity.
International Parental Child Abductions
This report discusses the applicability of the Hague Convention and current U.S. laws, both civil and criminal, which seek to address the quandary of children abducted by a parent to foreign nations.
Social Security's Effect on Child Poverty
This report discusses Social Security (SS), which plays an important role in reducing poverty among the elderly and children.
Protection of Children Online: Federal and State Laws Addressing Cyberstalking, Cyberharassment, and Cyberbullying
This report discusses Internet crimes, such as cyberbullying, cyberharassment, and cyberstalking, along with the limitations of such laws in the current environment. While Congress, under the Commerce Clause, has authority to regulate the Internet, Internet "harassment" presents new challenges for legislators in terms of defining and prosecuting such activity.
Infant Formula: National Problems
This report discusses congressional concerns regarding infant formula that was deficient in a required nutrient.
Juveniles in the Adult Criminal Justice System: An Overview
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Child Abuse: History, Legislation and Issues
This report discusses child abuse legislation in United States, child abuse prevention and treatment, incidence of child abuse and neglect. The report provides a summary of major legislation in the 1st session of the 95th congress.