Congressional Research Service Reports - 217 Matching Results

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Adoption Promotion Legislation in the 105th Congress

Description: President Clinton signed the Adoption and Safe Families Act into law on November 19, 1997, after the House and Senate approved final versions of the legislation on November 13. The new law (P.L. 105-89) is intended to promote adoption or other permanent arrangements for foster children who are unable to return home, and to make general improvements in the nation’s child welfare system. The House initially passed legislation (H.R. 867) on April 30 by a vote of 416-5, and the Senate passed an amended version on November 8. A compromise version was passed on November 13, by a vote of 406-7 in the House and by unanimous consent in the Senate. This report discusses the final version of the legislation, as enacted into law.
Date: November 24, 1997
Creator: Spar, Karen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Au Pair Program

Description: Legislation passed late in the 103rd Congress granted the U.S. Information Agency (USIA) authority to design and implement more rigorous rules regulating the au pair program. In 1997, the au pair program received considerable media attention as a result of the Louise Woodward court case regarding possible involvement of an au pair in the death of a child in Massachusetts. The U.S. Information Agency amended existing federal regulations for the au pair program in September 1997 to underscore the cultural exchange aspect of the program and strengthen au pair recruiting and training.
Date: January 30, 1998
Creator: Epstein, Susan B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Head Start: Background and Funding

Description: This report examines the history of federal funding for Head Start, which has provided comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children since 1965.
Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Butler, Alice & Gish, Melinda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abortion Law Development: A Brief Overview

Description: This report offers an overview of the development of abortion law from 1973 to the present. Beginning with a brief discussion of the historical background, the report analyzes the leading Supreme Court decisions over the past twenty-eight years, emphasizing particularly the landmark decisions in Roe and Doe, the Court’s shift in direction in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, and the Court’s most recent decision on abortion, Stenberg v. Carhart. The Court’s decisions on the constitutionality of restricting public funding for abortion are also discussed.
Date: January 2, 2001
Creator: Lewis, Karen J. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Allocation Formula Provisions

Description: Title I, Part A of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to state and local educational agencies (SEAs, LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I grants are used to provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving children attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families. Services may be provided at pre-kindergarten through high school levels. Title I has been the anchor of the ESEA since it was first enacted in 1965, and is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program.
Date: January 8, 2001
Creator: Riddle, Wayne C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Welfare: Reauthorization of the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program in the 107th Congress

Description: This report discusses the reauthorization of the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Amendments of 2001. The new law maintains the FY2001 mandatory funding level, authorizes additional discretionary funding, and grants new program authority to provide mentoring services for children of prisoners. In addition, the enacted legislation allows states to use Promoting Safe and Stable Families funds for infant "safe haven" programs, provides for reallocation of unused program funds, clarifies language defining family support programs, and gives more explicit instructions to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regarding use of funds set aside for research, evaluation and technical assistance.
Date: January 24, 2002
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie & Spar, Karen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Welfare: The Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program

Description: The report describes the authorization of funding for the Promoting Safe and Stable Families program (first created in 1993 under a different name) that has expired in the end of FY2001; thus, the 107th Congress acted to reauthorize this program and make some program changes (H.R. 2873, P.L. 107-133). P.L. 107-133 expands the definition of family preservation services under the Promoting Safe and Stable Families Program to include infant safe haven programs; clarifies the meaning of family support to include services that “strengthen parental relationships and promote healthy marriages”; provides for reallocation of unused program funds; and states that, out of any discretionary funds appropriated for the Safe and Stable Families Program, 3.3% will be added to the existing $10 million setaside for Court Improvement Grants; 3.3% will be added to the existing $6 million reservation for evaluation, technical assistance, research and training; and 2% will be added to the existing set-aside for Indian tribes (1% of mandatory funds).
Date: January 24, 2002
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie & Spar, Karen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Pornography: Constitutional Principles and Federal Statutes

Description: The Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, P.L. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009- 26, added a definition of “child pornography” that include visual depictions of what appears to be a minor engaging in explicit sexual conduct, even if no actual minor was used in producing the depiction. On April 16, 2002, in Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, the Supreme Court held this provision unconstitutional to the extent that it prohibited pictures that were not produced with actual minors. (This case is discussed under “Section 2256,” below.) In response to Ashcroft, bills were introduced in the House and Senate that would continue to ban some child pornography that was produced without an actual minor; on June 25, 2002, the House passed one such bill: H.R. 4623, 107th Congress.
Date: June 26, 2002
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Date: July 2, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Welfare and TANF Implementation: Recent Findings

Description: This report examines recent research findings about Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) implementation as it has affected the nation’s child welfare system. The nation’s program of cash aid for needy families with children (TANF) and its program to protect and care for children who are abused or neglected (child welfare services) are linked by history and share some of the same clients who have similar service needs.
Date: July 8, 2002
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Date: September 9, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Child Care Issues in the 107th Congress

Description: This report includes recent developments in federal child care programs and tax provisions. The report discusses several federal programs that support child care or related services, primarily for low-income working families. In addition, the tax code includes provisions specifically targeted to assist families with child care expenses. The report presents the legislative activity in the 107th Congress in regard to child care legislature and provisions.
Date: October 29, 2002
Creator: Gish, Melinda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department