Congressional Research Service Reports - 773 Matching Results

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Constitutionality of Requiring Sexually Explicit Material on the Internet to be Under a Separate Domain Name

Description: It is unclear whether making a “.xxx” domain mandatory would violate the First Amendment. Some propose making use of a “.xxx” domain voluntary, but others propose that Congress make it mandatory. The latter proposal raises the question whether a mandatory separate domain would violate the First Amendment, and this report focuses on that question.
Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The American Telephone and Telegraph Divestiture: Background, Provisions, and Restructuring

Description: On January 1, 1984, The American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) divested itself of a major portion of its organizational structure and functions. Under the post-divestiture environment the once fully-integrated Bell System is now reorganized into the "new" AT&T and seven Ladependent regional holding companies -- American Information Technologies Corp., 3ell Atlantic Corp., 3ell- South Corp., NYNEX Corp., Pacific Telesis Group., Southwestern Bell Corp., and U.S. West, Inc. The following analysis provides an overview of the pre- and post-divestiture organizational structure and details the evolution of the antitrust action which resulted in this divestiture.
Date: April 11, 1984
Creator: Gilroy, Angele A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Access to Broadband Networks

Description: The purpose of this report is to provide a more concrete discussion of access to wireline broadband networks. To that end, this report provides a discussion of what broadband networks look like; how both consumers and independent applications providers gain access to these networks; and the parameters available to network providers (such as their choices about network architecture, overall bandwidth capacity, bandwidth reserved for their own use, traffic prioritization, the terms and rates for access to their networks and for their retail services) that can affect end users’ and independent applications providers’ access to those networks.
Date: June 29, 2006
Creator: Goldfarb, Charles B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Advanced Technology Program

Description: The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) was created by P.L. 100-418, the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988, to encourage public-private cooperation in the development of pre-competitive technologies with broad application across industries. This activity has been targeted for elimination as a means to cut federal spending. This report discusses the ATP and related issues of federal appropriations (or the lack thereof).
Date: August 10, 1999
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficiency Standards for Appliances: Are They Needed?

Description: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA! (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NEPCA) (P.L. 95-619) , requires that energy efficiency standards be established for each of 13 classes of appliances that are major consumers of energy. NEPCA stipulates that such standards "be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency which the Secretary [of Energ'y] determines is technologically feasible and economically justified." The Department of Energy ' announced proposed standards for 8 of the 13 classes of appliances in June 1980 and initiated public hearings on them prior to final promulgation. In January 1981, the DOE suspended this process; after re-studying the proposed standards, it announced in April 1982 a finding that no standards are economically justified.
Date: December 12, 1983
Creator: Crane, Langdon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bankruptcy and Business Failure Data

Description: The purpose of this report is to provide statistical data on the actual number of businesses that are filing for bankruptcy or ceasing operations. Tabular data of both a historical and current nature concerning business failures and bankruptcies is provided.
Date: August 20, 1982
Creator: Scott, Oscar
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options

Description: In 1981 Congress enacted extensive changes in taxing and spending policies that supporters of these changes expected to generate sufficient revenues, despite a series of tax rate cuts, to balance the budget by FY84. After the onset of recession in early 1982, however, the Reagan Administration's projections showed widening budget deficits, which culminated in an actual FY83 deficit of $195.4 billion. Despite enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, and, more recently, the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, large deficits are expected to persist, even under continued favorable economic conditions, unless Federal taxing and spending policies are altered dramatically.
Date: July 15, 1985
Creator: Grinnell, David & Cox, William A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The International Wine Market: Description and Selected Issues

Description: This report discusses the global trade in wine, which has increased rapidly during the past 25 years, steadily rising from under $1 billion in 1977 to over $7 billion in 2001. Reports of health benefits and rising global incomes have spurred increasing demand for wine, particularly in mid- to upper-income countries. In 2001, the United States was the world’s leading importer, just ahead of the European Union (EU). Together, they accounted for over 60% of global imports.
Date: August 7, 2003
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The International Wine Market: Description and Selected Issues

Description: This report discusses global trade in wine, which has Several important issues have emerged in recent years with respect to international wine trade, particularly between the EU and non-EU countries, including oenological (wine-making) practices and the use of “semi-generic” names for wines. The latter issue is encompassed under the debate on “geographical indications” at the World Trade Organization. Ongoing bilateral negotiations between the United States and the EU seek to resolve both of these issues. .
Date: August 7, 2003
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Growth During the Recovery

Description: This report analyzes employment data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics from December 2007 to September 2012, including characteristics of job loss and gain within several industries.
Date: October 16, 2012
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Government Interventions in Response to Financial Turmoil

Description: This report reviews new programs introduced and other actions taken by the Treasury, Federal Reserve, and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation in response to the recent financial crisis. It does not cover longstanding programs such as the Fed's discount window and FDIC receivership of failed banks.
Date: February 1, 2010
Creator: Webel, Baird & Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legislation to Facilitate Cybersecurity Information Sharing: Economic Analysis

Description: This report analyzes the incentives for companies to share information about cybersecurity breaches with other companies and the federal government. Data breaches, such as those at Target, Home Depot, Neiman Marcus, and JPMorgan Chase, affecting financial records of tens of millions of households seem to occur regularly. Companies typically respond by trying to increase their cybersecurity by hiring consultants and purchasing new hardware and software. Policy analysts have suggested that sharing information about these breaches could be an effective and inexpensive part of improving cybersecurity. Firms share information directly on an ad hoc basis and through private-sector, nonprofit organizations such as Information Sharing and Analysis Centers (ISACs) that can analyze and disseminate information.
Date: December 11, 2014
Creator: Weiss, N. Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Description: This report addresses the issue of jobs outsourcing by analyzing the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, the role such investment plays in U.S. trade, jobs, and production, and the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy.
Date: April 27, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Terrorism Risk Insurance Legislation: Issue Summary and Side-by-Side Analysis

Description: After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, Congress responded to the disruption in the insurance market by passing the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 (TRIA; P.L. 107-297). TRIA created a temporary program, to calm the insurance markets through a government reinsurance backstop sharing in terrorism losses. The current TRIA program expires at the end of 2014. This report briefly outlines the issues involved with terrorism insurance, summarizes the extension legislation, and includes a side-by-side of the current TRIA law and the bills that have been passed by the Senate (S. 2244), reported by the House Committee on Financial Services (H.R. 4871), and passed by the House (S. 2244 with a substitute amendment).
Date: December 11, 2014
Creator: Webel, Baird
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department