Congressional Research Service Reports - 40 Matching Results

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Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Description: This report first discusses the current state of the economy, including measures that have already been taken by the monetary authorities, and assesses the need for and potential consequences of fiscal stimulus. The second part of the report reviews the proposals discussed during debate on the recently enacted fiscal stimulus, both those adopted and those considered but not adopted.
Date: September 5, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L.; Labonte, Marc; Weiss, N. E. & Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: An Overview

Description: This report discusses The U.S. economy is growing increasingly interconnected with other economies around the world, a phenomenon often referred to as globalization. As U.S. businesses expand globally, however, various groups across the social and economic spectrum are growing concerned over the economic, social, and political impact of this activity. Over the past 15 years, multinational corporations and nations have adopted voluntary, legally enforceable, and industry-specific codes of conduct to address many of these concerns. This report provides background on the issue and briefly examines options for Congress to address it.
Date: January 30, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reporting Requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008

Description: This report describes the various reporting requirements in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA) and is organized according to the entities required to prepare and submit the reports. The report also provides some concluding observations regarding those requirements.
Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Copeland, Curtis W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Government Corporations: An Overview

Description: This report provides an overview of federal government corporations, a category currently consisting of some 17 corporate agencies performing functions assigned to them in law. A government corporation, as defined in this report, is a government agency that is established by Congress to provide a market-oriented public service and required to produce revenues that meet or approximate its expenditures.
Date: January 31, 2008
Creator: Kosar, Kevin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Description: This report discusses how the total debt of the federal government can increase, a historical overview of debt limits, and how the current economic slowdown has led to higher deficits and thereby a series of debt limit increases, as well as legislation related to these increases.
Date: May 30, 2008
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data

Description: This report addresses the debate of job creation in the U.S. versus job outsourcing and its effects on the economy by analyzing the extent of direct investment into and out of the economy, the role such investment plays in U.S. trade, jobs, and production, and the relationship between direct investment and the broader economic changes that are occurring in the U.S. economy.
Date: May 13, 2008
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Constitutionality of Campaign Finance Regulation: Buckley v. Valeo and Its Supreme Court Progeny

Description: This report first discusses the key holdings enunciated by the Supreme Court in Buckley, including those upholding reasonable contribution limits, striking down expenditure limits, upholding disclosure reporting requirements, and upholding the system of voluntary presidential election expenditure limitations linked with public financing. It then examines the Court's extension of Buckley in several subsequent cases, evaluating them in various regulatory contexts: contribution limits, expenditure limits, disclosure requirements, and political party soft money and electioneering communication restrictions.
Date: November 18, 2008
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic Slowdown: Issues and Policies

Description: This report first discusses the current state of the economy, including measures that have already been taken by the monetary authorities, and assesses the need for and potential consequences of fiscal stimulus. The second part of the report reviews the proposals discussed during debate on the recently enacted fiscal stimulus, both those adopted and those considered but not adopted. The various stimulus packages differed somewhat, and the report briefly describes those differences. This section also includes a discussion of the potential elements of a second stimulus proposal, and concludes with a discussion of the macroeconomic effects of the proposals. The final section of the paper discusses recent and proposed financial interventions.
Date: November 26, 2008
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Hungerford, Thomas L.; Labonte, Marc; Murphy, Edward V.; Weiss, N. Eric & Whittaker, Julie M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job Loss and Infrastructure Job Creation During the Recession

Description: The report examines trends in employment and job loss since the start of the latest recession then focuses on job creation estimates associated with increased spending on infrastructure, placing a heavy emphasis on explaining the limitations with the methodology that is often utilized to develop the estimates.
Date: December 23, 2008
Creator: Levine, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act and Current Financial Turmoil: Issues and Analysis

Description: This report briefly introduces aspects of the current financial instability. Following this, it outlines the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA) legislation and the steps that Treasury has taken to implement EESA. Finally, the report concludes with a more in-depth analysis of the current financial instability, including potential causes of financial instability in general, some sources of the current instability, and how financial instability may spill over into the broader economy.
Date: October 31, 2008
Creator: Webel, Baird & Murphy, Edward V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

Description: This report provides an overview of the current status, trends, and forecasts for U.S. international trade. The purpose of this report is to provide current data and brief explanations for the various types of trade flows, particularly U.S. exports, along with a short discussion of particular trends and points of contention related to trade policy.
Date: October 16, 2008
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.; Ilias, Shayerah & Donnelly, J. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Motor Vehicle Industry: Federal Financial Assistance and Restructuring

Description: This report reviews the U.S. automotive industry at present, aspects of the industry's financial situation, and relief options. It includes an analysis of the current situation in the U.S. automotive market, including efforts to address problems of long-term competitiveness and the impact of the industry on the broader U.S. economy. It focuses on financial issues, including credit questions, and legal and financial aspects of government-offered loans or loan guarantees. This further includes consideration of legacy issues, specifically pension and health care responsibilities of the Detroit 3. It also reviews potential solutions to the financial crisis, including options of government receivership and participation management, and various forms of bankruptcy. Finally, the report reviews stipulations that Congress might impose on auto manufacturers as conditions of providing assistance.
Date: December 3, 2008
Creator: Cooney, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Debarment and Suspension of Government Contractors: An Overview of the Law Including Recently Enacted and Proposed Amendments

Description: The amount spent on government contracts, coupled with widely reported contractors misconduct, has generated congressional interest in debarment and suspension. The 110th Congress enacted several bills addressing debarment and suspension, including the Sudan Accountability and Divestment Act, and several others, all of which are detailed in this report.
Date: November 19, 2008
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Advanced Technology Program

Description: President Bush's FY2008 budget request did not include financing for ATP. The FY2008 Consolidated Appropriations Act, P.L. 110-161, replaces ATP with the Technology Innovation Program (TIP) and provides $65.2 million (with an additional $5 million in ATP FY2007 unobligated balances), 17.6% less than the previous fiscal year. P.L. 110- 69, the America COMPETES Act, authorized the creation of TIP.
Date: January 7, 2008
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Global Financial Crisis: The Role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Description: This report discusses two potential roles the International Monetary Fund (IMF) may have in helping to resolve the current global financial crisis: (1) immediate crisis control through balance of payments lending to emerging market and less-developed countries and (2) increased surveillance of the global economy through better coordination with the international financial regulatory agencies.
Date: October 27, 2008
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Global Financial Crisis: The Role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Description: This report discusses two potential roles the International Monetary Fund (IMF) may have in helping to resolve the current global financial crisis: (1) immediate crisis control through balance of payments lending to emerging market and less-developed countries and (2) increased surveillance of the global economy through better coordination with the international financial regulatory agencies.
Date: October 30, 2008
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financial Market Intervention

Description: Financial markets continue to experience significant disturbance and the banking sector remains fragile. Efforts to restore confidence have been met with mixed success thus far. After attempting to deal with troubled institutions on a case-by-case basis, Treasury has proposed a plan to purchase mortgage-related assets to alleviate stress in financial markets and in the banking system. This report provides answers to some frequently asked questions concerning the financial disruptions of September 2008 and the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) in H.R. 3997.
Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Murphy, Edward V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Resolution Trust Corporation: Historical Analysis

Description: In a 1989 legislative response to financial troubles in the thrift industry, the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA, P.L. 101-73) was enacted. FIRREA's principal mission was to conduct a partially tax-payer funded program to address the troubles of the nation's many insolvent thrifts. To do so, it established a new entity, the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC), whose mission was to address troubled thrifts by arranging their sale to other institutions or shuttering them and disposing of their assets. This report analyzes the creation and functions of the RTC, including criticisms and results of its actions.
Date: September 26, 2008
Creator: Shorter, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Merger Review Authority of the Federal Communications Commission

Description: This report will explain the merger review process at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC or Commission). Whenever companies holding licenses issued by the FCC wish to merge, the merging entities must obtain approval from two federal agencies: the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the FCC. The Commission and the DOJ do not follow precisely the same process or reasoning when examining the potential effects of proposed mergers. The Act permits the Commission to grant the transfer only if the agency determines that the transaction would be in the public interest. The public interest standard is generally broader than the competition analysis authorized by the antitrust laws and conducted by the DOJ. Therefore, the Commission possesses greater latitude to examine other potential effects of a proposed merger beyond its possible effect on competition in the relevant market.
Date: August 20, 2008
Creator: Ruane, Kathleen Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Primer on Energy Derivatives and Their Regulation

Description: Prices of oil and other energy commodities are set in futures and derivatives markets, where producers, commercial users, and financial speculators buy and sell contracts whose value is linked to the price of the underlying commodity. Trading occurs on regulated futures exchanges and in a largely unregulated over-the-counter (OTC) market; both forms of trading are global in scope. This report presents basic information about these markets, the instruments traded, the regulatory framework, speculation, and current legislative proposals.
Date: July 15, 2008
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department