Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

ABOUT BROWSE FEED

Federal Contracting and Subcontracting with Small Businesses: Issues in the 112th Congress

Description: Congress has generally broad authority to impose requirements upon the federal procurement process, or the process whereby agencies obtain goods and services from the private sector. One of the many ways in which Congress has exercised this authority is by enacting measures intended to promote contracting and subcontracting with "small businesses" by federal agencies. This report describes and analyzes measures that Members of the 112th Congress have enacted or proposed in response to particular issues pertaining to small business contracting and subcontracting.
Date: March 7, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M. & Lunder, Erika K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selected Recently Expired Business Tax Provisions ("Tax Extenders")

Description: This report briefly summarizes and discusses the economic impact of selected business-related tax provisions that expired at the end of 2013 and that are being considered for extension.
Date: April 30, 2014
Creator: Gravelle, Jane G.; Marples, Donald J. & Sherlock, Molly F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts

Description: This report provides an overview of the payment and other protections for subcontractors on certain federal prime contracts under the Miller Act, the 1988 amendments to the Prompt Payment Act, and the Small Business Act.
Date: January 27, 2014
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State Small Business Credit Initiative: Implementation and Funding Issues

Description: This report examines the State Small Business Credit Initiative (SSBCI) and its implementation, including Treasury's response to initial program audits conducted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) and Treasury's Office of Inspector General (OIG). The SSBCI provides funding, allocated by formula and distributed in one-third increments, to states, territories, and eligible municipalities (hereinafter referred to as states) to expand existing or create new state small business investment programs, including state capital access programs, collateral support programs, loan participation programs, loan guarantee programs, and venture capital programs.
Date: October 16, 2014
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts

Description: This report provides an overview of the payment and other protections for subcontractors on certain federal prime contracts under the Miller Act, the 1988 amendments to the Prompt Payment Act, and the Small Business Act.
Date: December 10, 2012
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement

Description: This report briefly discusses the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act of 1977 (FCPA), which was intended to prevent corporate bribery of foreign officials. Criticisms of the act's operation and scope began almost immediately after its passage and have continued. This report discusses these criticisms.
Date: October 21, 2010
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Date: June 11, 2015
Creator: Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Senior Executive Service: Background and Options for Reform

Description: Report that provides a history and background of the Senior Executive Service (SES), examines the central features of the SES, and discusses some areas in which advocates for SES reform have called for change.
Date: September 6, 2012
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supervision of U.S. Payment, Clearing, and Settlement Systems: Designation of Financial Market Utilities (FMUs)

Description: This report outlines the changes to the supervision of key market infrastructure that are embodied in the Dodd-Frank Act. It is intended to be used as a reference for those interested in the financial system's "plumbing," and how the associated systems are currently overseen and regulated.
Date: September 10, 2012
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Reorganization: Overview and Issues for Congress

Description: On January 13, 2012, President Obama asked Congress for authority to reorganize and consolidate into one department the business- and trade-related functions of six federal entities. U.S. policymakers' interest in the organizational structure of U.S. government trade functions has grown in recent years, stimulated by congressional and federal efforts to promote U.S. exports and employment, including through the National Export Initiative (NEI). Interest also has been stimulated by national debates on reducing federal spending and the size of the U.S. government. This report looks at the policy debate and role of Congress in such a move.
Date: May 31, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal Protections for Subcontractors on Federal Prime Contracts

Description: This report provides an overview of the payment and other protections for subcontractors on certain federal prime contracts under the Miller Act, the 1988 amendments to the Prompt Payment Act, and the Small Business Act. Congress enacted these statutes to give subcontractors rights and remedies they would not otherwise have because of legal doctrines relating to sovereign immunity, privity of contract, and freedom to contract. The report also discusses legislation introduced in the 111th Congress that would provide additional protections for subcontractors.
Date: October 6, 2010
Creator: Manuel, Kate M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Internet Tax Freedom Act: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the Internet Tax Freedom Act (ITFA; P.L. 105-277), which enacted in 1998, implemented a three-year moratorium preventing state and local governments from taxing Internet access, or imposing multiple or discriminatory taxes on electronic commerce.
Date: October 5, 2015
Creator: Stupak, Jeffrey M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bankruptcy for Marijuana Businesses?

Description: This legal sidebar discusses recent bankruptcy court cases that suggest that one such risk may be the ultimate unavailability to both debtors and creditors of the protections, benefits, and predictability of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code when state-regulated marijuana businesses fail.
Date: October 29, 2014
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What Does the Gig Economy Mean for Workers?

Description: This report provides an overview of the gig economy -- i.e., the collection of markets that match providers to consumers on a gig (or job) basis in support of on-demand commerce (e.g., Uber, TaskRabbit) -- and identifies legal and policy questions relevant to its workforce.
Date: February 5, 2016
Creator: Donovan, Sarah A.; Bradley, David H. & Shimabukuro, Jon O.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Description: This report describes the Microloan program's eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers and examines the arguments presented by the program's critics and advocates. It also examines changes to the program authorized by P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010.
Date: August 9, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA): Congressional Interest and Executive Enforcement, In Brief

Description: This report briefly discusses the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act of 1977 (FCPA), which was intended to prevent corporate bribery of foreign officials. Criticisms of the act's operation and scope began almost immediately after its passage and have continued. This report addresses these criticisms.
Date: March 15, 2016
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Microloan program provides direct loans to qualified nonprofit intermediary lenders who, in turn, provide “microloans” of up to $50,000 to small businesses and nonprofit child care centers. It also provides marketing, management, and technical assistance to microloan borrowers and potential borrowers. This report opens with a discussion of the rationale provided for having a Microloan program, describes the program’s eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers, and examines the arguments presented by the program’s critics and advocates. It then discusses P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, which increased the Microloan program’s loan limit for borrowers from $35,000 to $50,000, and the aggregate loan limit for intermediaries after their first year of participation in the program from $3.5 million to $5 million.
Date: May 28, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corporate Inversions: Frequently Asked Legal Questions

Description: This report answers frequently-asked legal questions about corporate inversions. It answers questions relating to the scope and operation of Section 7874, including how key statutory terms have been interpreted by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). It discusses important Department of Treasury regulations that were finalized in 2015 and 2016, and answers questions about the IRS's authority to issue these regulations. Other questions that are answered relate to legislation introduced in the 114th Congress, the interaction of Section 7874 with tax treaties, and the imposition of an excise tax on corporate insiders who benefit from an inversion.
Date: September 7, 2016
Creator: Lunder, Erika K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Double-Dip Recession: Previous Experience and Current Prospect

Description: This report discusses factors suggesting an increased risk of double-dip recession. It discusses other factors that suggest economic recovery will continue. The U.S. historical experience with double-dip recessions is also presented. It examines the role of deleveraging by households and businesses in the aftermath of the recent financial crisis in shaping the likely pace of economic recovery. The report concludes with a look at current economic projections.
Date: December 3, 2010
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Hollowing Out" in U.S. Manufacturing: Analysis and Issues for Congress

Description: Statistics showing that domestic value added represents a diminishing share of the value of U.S. factory output have been interpreted by many analysts as indicating that manufacturing is "hollowing out" as U.S. manufacturers undertake more highvalue work abroad. Economic data have been slow to take note of this development, which raises the question of whether the United States will continue to generate highly skilled, high-wage jobs related to advanced manufacturing. This report discusses economic evidence related to the "hollowing out" thesis with respect to the manufacturing sector. It then considers the policy implications of the debate.
Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

"Hollowing Out" in U.S. Manufacturing: Analysis and Issues for Congress

Description: The health of the U.S. manufacturing sector has been a long-standing concern of Congress. Only a small proportion of U.S. workers are now employed in factories. U.S. factories have stepped up production of goods that require high technological sophistication but relatively little direct labor. In the context of national security, the fact that U.S. manufacturers of vital products are critically dependent upon inputs from abroad is frequently a subject of concern. International comparisons indicate that the United States is in no way unique in its dependence on foreign inputs to manufacturing.
Date: March 23, 2011
Creator: Levinson, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Double-Dip Recession: Previous Experience and Current Prospect

Description: This report discusses factors suggesting an increased risk of a double-dip recession. A double-dip or W-shaped recession occurs when the economy emerges from a recession, has a short period of growth, but then, still well short of a full recovery, falls back into recession. It also discusses other factors that suggest economic recovery will continue. It presents the U.S. historical experience with double-dip recessions. It examines the role of deleveraging by households and businesses in the aftermath of the recent financial crisis in shaping the likely pace of economic recovery. The report concludes with a look at current economic projections.
Date: June 19, 2012
Creator: Elwell, Craig K.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS): Manufacturing Trends

Description: Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) represent a bright spot for the technology-intensive aerospace manufacturing sector, but military and civil government agencies will likely be the predominant customers for an extended period while such systems are integrated into the U.S. National Airspace System ("national airspace"). This report discusses the market for UAS in 2013 and briefly discusses UAS manufacturers.
Date: January 30, 2013
Creator: Harrison, Glennon J.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department