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The Congressional Budget Process: A Brief Overview

Description: The term "budget process," when applied to the federal government, actually refers to a number of processes that have evolved separately and that occur with varying degrees of coordination. This overview, and the accompanying flow chart, are intended to describe in brief each of the parts of the budget process that involve Congress, clarify the role played by each, and explain how they operate together. They include the President's budget submission, the budget resolution, reconciliation, sequestration, authorizations, and appropriations.
Date: March 3, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool

Description: Report that gives an overview of the "deeming resolution" (referring to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle). It includes background information and a breakdown of House and Senate action on deeming resolutions, broken down by fiscal year for the cycles when there was no agreement on a budget resolution.
Date: June 12, 2013
Creator: Lynch, Megan Suzanne
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Description: President Obama's FY2013 budget submission was released on February 13, 2012. This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with the President's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. Spending caps and budget enforcement mechanisms established in the Budget Control Act (BCA) of 2011 will probably strongly affect the FY2013 budget cycle. This report may provide a starting point for discussions about spending trends and federal priorities, but it does not attempt to explain spending patterns in each policy area.
Date: February 14, 2012
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discretionary Budget Authority by Subfunction: An Overview

Description: This report provides a graphical overview of historical trends in discretionary budget authority (BA) from FY1976 through FY2011, enacted levels for FY2012 spending, and the levels consistent with President Obama's proposals for FY2013 through FY2017. It also includes a background on functional categories and a section discussing historical spending trends.
Date: March 29, 2011
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Budget Control Act of 2011: The Effects on Spending and the Budget Deficit When the Automatic Spending Cuts Are Implemented

Description: Following a lengthy debate over raising the debt limit, the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA; P.L. 112-25) was signed into law by President Obama on August 2, 2011. To provide context for this debate, this report discusses the effects of the BCA on spending and the deficit, assuming that the January 2013 automatic spending reductions proceed as scheduled.
Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Levit, Mindy R. & Labonte, Marc
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DHS Headquarters Consolidation Project: Issues for Congress

Description: This report outlines the policy considerations to be evaluated in deciding whether to continue funding the consolidated Department of Homeland Security (DHS) headquarters, and to explore some of the benefits and consequences of several possible ways forward.
Date: September 21, 2012
Creator: Painter, William L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Budget Reconciliation Process: Timing of Legislative Action

Description: This report discusses the budget reconciliation process, which is an optional procedure under the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 that operates as an adjunct to the annual budget resolution process. Reconciliation is a two-stage process in which reconciliation instructions are included in the budget resolution, directing the appropriate committees to develop legislation achieving the desired budgetary outcomes, and the resultant legislation (usually incorporated into an omnibus bill) is considered under expedited procedures in the House and Senate.
Date: October 24, 2013
Creator: Lynch, Megan S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Appropriations Process: FAQs Regarding Potential Legislative Changes and Effects of a Government Shutdown

Description: This report provides background information on the Affordable Care Act (ACA). It discusses the ACA and the annual appropriations process and the potential impact of a shutdown on ACA implementation.
Date: October 2, 2013
Creator: Redhead, C. S.; Tollestrup, Jessica; Liu, Edward C. & Brass, Clinton T.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses issues for Congress in FY2011, which are whether to approve, reject, or modify DOD's new KC-X competition strategy, and whether to approve, reject, or modify the Air Force's request for FY2011 research and development funding for the new KC-X program.
Date: October 23, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses issues for Congress in FY2011, which are whether to approve, reject, or modify DOD's new KC-X competition strategy, and whether to approve, reject, or modify the Air Force's request for FY2011 research and development funding for the new KC-X program.
Date: October 5, 2009
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Proposed "Defund ACORN Act": Is It a "Bill of Attainder"?

Description: This report provides background information the "Defund ACORN Act" as part of H.R. 3221, 111th Congress, the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 2009. The report discusses the bills of attainder, the specificity and punishment.
Date: September 22, 2009
Creator: Thomas, Kenneth R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2012 Budget and Appropriations

Description: This report analyzes the FY2012 request and congressional action related to FY2012 State-Foreign Operations legislation. The Summary, “Introduction” and “Recent Developments” sections, and appendix tables in this version of the report have been updated to reflect enactment of P.L. 112-74, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, FY2012.
Date: January 6, 2012
Creator: Epstein, Susan B. & Lawson, Marian Leonardo
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEMORANDUM: Preliminary assessment of efficiency initiatives announced by Secretary of Defense Gates on August 9, 2010

Description: On August 9, 2010, Secretary of Defense Gates announced a number of efficiency initiatives intended to contribute to a Defense Department effort to achieve about $100 billion of savings over the next five years. The Defense Department's intent is not to reduce the defense "top line" budget, but, rather, to apply any savings to finance currently planned programs. This report contains an order-of-magnitude analysis of amounts of money currently spent in each of the major areas Secretary Gates identified for savings.
Date: August 12, 2010
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Reconciliation Measures Enacted Into Law: 1980-2008

Description: This report identifies and briefly summarizes the 19 budget reconciliation measures enacted into law during the period covering 1980, when reconciliation procedures first were used by both chambers, through 2008, the last year of the 110th Congress.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Keith, Robert
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act and Circular A-76

Description: This report begins with a brief history of Circular A-76, a review of the its key components, and an assessment of the implementation of the circular. The section on FAIR (Federal Activities Inventory Reform Act) describes how it emerged from a series of compromises, explains the statute's key provisions, and reviews the implementation process, including guidance issued by OMB. The final section addresses recent initiatives, notably the President's competitive sourcing initiative and the Commercial Activities Panel.
Date: April 6, 2007
Creator: Halchin, L. E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Justice (DOJ) Appropriations for FY2008 and FY2009

Description: This report provides a discussion of funding for the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) for fiscal years 2008 and 2009, including background information, a breakdown of funding from FY2008 regular and supplemental funding, and budget requests for FY2009.
Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: Krouse, William J.; Franco, Celinda & James, Nathan
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second FY2008 Supplemental Appropriations for Military Operations, International Affairs, and Other Purposes

Description: This report discusses supplemental appropriations for fiscal years 2008 and 2009. During its first session, the 110th Congress approved fiscal year 2008 emergency supplemental appropriations of $86.8 billion for the Department of Defense and $2.4 billion for international affairs.
Date: June 25, 2008
Creator: Daggett, Stephen; Epstein, Susan B.; Margesson, Rhoda & Loane, Shannon S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of Efforts to Double Federal Funding for Physical Sciences and Engineering Research

Description: This report provides information and analysis on the origins of the doubling effort; selected acts of Congress, other events, and reports; authorizations and appropriations; the effects of the doubling effort on the funding level and character of federal research funding for the physical sciences and engineering disciplines; and related policy issues.
Date: September 8, 2015
Creator: Sargent, John F., Jr.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Veterans Affairs FY2016 Appropriations: In Brief

Description: This report discusses budget issues for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), which provides a range of benefits and services to veterans who meet certain eligibility rules.
Date: November 9, 2015
Creator: Panangala, Sidath V.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2016 Request

Description: This report is an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to the Middle East, including a brief historical review of foreign aid levels, a description of specific country programs, and an analysis of current foreign aid issues. The Middle East is perennially a major focus of interest as Congress exercises these powers.
Date: October 19, 2015
Creator: Sharp, Jeremy M. & Humud, Carla E.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department