Congressional Research Service Reports - 186 Matching Results

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A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources "for additional reading" are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Date: November 13, 1996
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Earmarks and Limitations in Appropriations Bills

Description: An annual appropriations act is generally made up of separate paragraphs, each of which provides funding for specific agencies and programs. Generally, each paragraph corresponds to a unique account and provides appropriations for multiple projects and purposes as a single lump sum. Earmarks and limitations are two devices regularly used in annual appropriations acts to restrict, or more precisely direct, the availability of funds for specific projects or purposes of an account. Sometimes an earmark or a limitation may generate more interest or controversy than the total appropriation.
Date: February 11, 1999
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baselines and Scorekeeping in the Federal Budget Process

Description: Baselines and scorekeeping are an integral part of the federal budget process, providing Congress and the President with a framework for making and enforcing budgetary decisions. A baseline serves as a benchmark for federal budget decisions. While the Office of Management and Budget (0MB) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) create different baselines, their baselines project federal spending, revenue, and budget surplus or deficit amounts that would occur if existing budget policies were left unchanged. Scorekeeping is the process by which the budgetary impact of proposed and enacted budget policies is measured; it assists Congress and the President in making and enforcing budgetary decisions
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appropriations Bills: What are "General Provisions"?

Description: An annual appropriations act generally consists of two parts – paragraphs providing funding, and general provisions focusing on non-funding as well as funding issues. Discussed on this brief fact sheet are what is found in general provisions of appropriations bills.
Date: February 11, 1999
Creator: Streeter, Sandy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Consideration of the Budget Resolution

Description: Consideration of a concurrent budget resolution is governed by special procedures in the House and Senate. Although the procedures of each chamber differ, they serve generally to expedite consideration of the budget resolution.
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Resolution Enforcement

Description: The annual budget resolution sets forth Congress's budget plan for a period of at least five fiscal years. It includes total levels of spending, revenues, and the debt limit for each of the fiscal years covered.
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Federal Debt: Who Bears Its Burdens?

Description: This report discusses the federal debt, which quintupled from FY1980 to FY1995 and went from 26% to 50% of GDP. The report examines changing ideas in regards to what segment of the population most feels the effects of growing government debt, and how its effects manifest.
Date: December 9, 1999
Creator: Cox, William A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Executive Budget Process Timetable

Description: The executive budget process is a complex set of activities that includes formulation of the President’s budget, interaction with Congress, and execution of the budget. Table 1 provides a timetable of the major steps in the year and a half process. The initial development of the President’s budget begins in the individual federal agencies approximately 10 months before the President submits it to Congress (17 or 18 months before the start of the fiscal year).
Date: April 8, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Congressional Action, 1988-June 1999

Description: Between 1988 and June 1999, thirteen emergency supplemental or farm disaster acts provided a total of $17 billion in emergency funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The vast majority of this amount has gone directly to farmers, primarily in the form of disaster payments ($12.2 billion) to any farmer suffering a significant crop loss caused by a natural disaster, and "market loss" payments ($3.1 billion) to help grain, cotton, and dairy farmers recover from low farm commodity prices. The remaining $1.7 billion has gone to a wide array of other USDA programs, including those for other forms of farm disaster assistance, farm loans, and overseas food aid. Congress is expected to consider a multi-billion financial assistance package for farmers sometime this year.
Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appropriations for FY2000: District of Columbia

Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the District of Columbia.
Date: December 23, 1999
Creator: Boyd, Eugene
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Description: This report briefly discusses federal funding gaps. The routine activities of most federal agencies are funded annually by one or more of the 13 regular appropriations bills. When action on the regular appropriations bills is delayed, a continuing resolution (CR) is used to provide interim funding. During the past 48 years, CRs have been enacted for all but four fiscal years (FY1953, 1989, 1995, and 1997). For some fiscal years, a series of as many as six CRs have been enacted.
Date: October 18, 1999
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Burdensharing: Is Japan's Host Nation Support a Model for Other Allies?

Description: This report reviews data that the Administration has provided to Congress on the costs of U.S. forces based abroad and on the value of host nation support contributions. It analyzes the data in order to assess potential defense budget savings from measures now under congressional consideration. The report concludes that, because of shortcomings in the data, estimates of savings in the U.S. defense budget from increased host nation contributions are often overstated. Some commonly accepted assertions frequently cited in the congressional burdensharing debate, therefore, are of doubtful validity.
Date: June 20, 1994
Creator: Daggett, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of Energy's FY1996 Budget

Description: This issue brief describes the FY1996 request for DOE's major programs, its implications, and congressional action on the DOE budget. Table 1 at the end of the issue brief highlights the FY1996 DOE budget request.
Date: February 8, 1996
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Department of Energy's FY1998 Budget

Description: This issue brief describes the FY1998 request for DOE's major programs, its implications, and congressional action on the DOE budget. Table 1 at the end of the issue brief highlights the FY1998 DOE budget request. House and Senate marks and the final budget enacted will be included in revised versions as the appropriations bills move through the Congress.
Date: November 7, 1997
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department