Congressional Research Service Reports - 3,017 Matching Results

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Medicare Financial Status: In Brief
This report provides an overview on Medicare, discussing its various components and sources of funding. The report also examines projections for spending within the program.
USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives After 15 Years: Issues for Congress
This report discusses USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives' (OTI's) origin, its past and present activities, and issues about the program's impact, structure, and role within USAID that may be of interest to Congress. OTI's activities are overtly political, based on the idea that in the midst of political crisis and instability abroad there are local agents of change whose efforts, when supported by timely and creative U.S. assistance, can tip the balance toward peaceful and democratic outcomes that advance U.S. foreign policy objectives.
Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
This report identifies programs administered by federal agencies to provide a range of assistance to individual victims; state, territorial, and local governments; and non-governmental entities after major disasters, including certain terrorist attacks. It provides brief descriptive information to help congressional offices determine which programs bear further consideration in the planning, organization, or implementation of recovery operations.
Energy Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)
This report discusses the energy appropriations in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5). It includes background information, a summary of provisions, and detailed explanations of the relevant appropriations and tax provisions.
FY2016 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues
This report provides a brief synopsis of sections in H.R. 1735 that pertain to selected personnel policy. These include major military retirement reforms, end strengths, compensation, health care, and sexual assault, as well as less prominent issues that nonetheless generate significant public interest. This report focuses exclusively on the annual defense authorization process.
Legislative Procedures for Adjusting the Public Debt Limit: A Brief Overview
This report discusses the procedure for adjusting the public debt limit. Nearly all of the outstanding debt of the federal government is subject to a statutory limit, which is set forth as a dollar limitation in 31 U.S.C. 3101(b). From time to time, Congress considers and passes legislation to adjust or suspend this limit.
Increases in Tricare Costs: Background and Options for Congress
This report discusses budgetary matters for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), specifically regarding past instances of debate regarding the Tricare system. The dollar amounts allocated to health care in the budget of the DOD have more than doubled since FY2001, growing from about $17 billion to over $44.8 billion in FY2009.
Forest Service Receipt-Sharing Payments: Proposals for Change
In lieu of property taxes, the Forest Service generally shares 25% of receipts from the sale, lease, rental, or other use of the national forests to the states for use on roads and schools in the counties where the national forests are located. This report discusses concerns about the equity and stability of Forest Service receipt-sharing payments, especially with the decline in timber sales over the past decade, and about the incentives of the current system.
The Hill-Burton Uncompensated Services Program
No Description Available.
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt
No Description Available.
U.S. National Science Foundation: Major Research Equipment and Facility Construction
The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supports the acquisition and construction of major research facilities and equipment that are to extend the boundaries of science, engineering, and technology. The Administration's FY2013 budget request for the NSF is $7,373.1 million, a 4.8% increase over the FY2012 estimated level of $7,033.1 million. Included in the request total is $196.2 million for MREFC, slightly below the FY2012 estimate of $197.1 million.
U.S. National Science Foundation: Major Research Equipment and Facility Construction
The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supports the acquisition and construction of major research facilities and equipment that are to extend the boundaries of science, engineering, and technology. The FY2011 request for the NSF is $7,424.4 million, approximately $551.9 million above the FY2010 estimate. This report discusses the research endeavors overseen by the NSF, as well as what NSF projects will be funded by FY2011 appropriations.
U.S. National Science Foundation: Major Research Equipment and Facility Construction
The Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) account of the National Science Foundation (NSF) supports the acquisition and construction of major research facilities and equipment that are to extend the boundaries of science, engineering, and technology. The FY2011 request for the NSF is $7,424.4 million, approximately $551.9 million above the FY2010 estimate. This report discusses the research endeavors overseen by the NSF, as well as what NSF projects will be funded by FY2011 appropriations.
Congressional Use of Funding Cutoffs Since 1970 Involving U.S. Military Forces and Overseas Deployments
This report provides background information on major instances, since 1970, when Congress has utilized funding cutoffs to compel the withdrawal of United States military forces from overseas military deployments. It also highlights key efforts by Congress to utilize the War Powers Resolution, since its enactment in 1973, to compel the withdrawal of U.S. military forces from foreign deployments. In this review, legislation expressing the “sense of the Congress” regarding U.S. military deployments is not addressed.
Environmental Protection Agency: Appropriations for FY2006
The 109th Congress moved funding jurisdiction for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from the Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development (VA-HUD), and Independent Agencies appropriations subcommittee to the Interior subcommittee. Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for EPA, subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request.
Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations and Highlights
Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provides $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%. Section 439 of Title IV indicates that the rescission is to be applied proportionately among each account, program, project, and activity specified in the law, accompanying reports, and the President’s budget request. The total FY2006 EPA appropriation includes an additional $80 million in unobligated funds “rescinded” from past appropriations, as noted in the following table. P.L. 109-54 provides more funding for EPA than the Administration’s FY2006 request of $7.52 billion, but less than the FY2005 appropriation of $8.03 billion.
Federal Funding for AIDS Research and Education
No Description Available.
Federal Funding for AIDS Research and Education
No Description Available.
The Line Item Veto Act
No Description Available.
The Line Item Veto Act: Procedural Issues
No Description Available.
Appropriations Bills: What is Report Language?
When the Senate or House Appropriations Committee reports an appropriations bill to the full Senate or House, respectively, the committee typically publishes a committee report explaining the bill. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of what these reports entail and the language used within them.
Government Performance and Results Act and the Appropriations Process
No Description Available.
Crime Control Assistance Through the Byrne Programs
The statute provides that states receive and distribute block grant funds and that the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) of the U.S. Department of Justice awards discretionary grants for specified activities. Allocated largely on the basis of population, block grant funds are used for personnel, equipment, training, technical assistance, and information systems to improve criminal justice systems.
Emergency Spending: Statutory and Congressional Rules
Under the Budget Enforcement Act (BEA), there are statutory limits (caps) on the level of federal discretionary spending, enforced by across-the-board spending cuts, known as a sequester. If, however, spending is designated as emergency by both the President and Congress, it will not trigger a sequester, because the caps are adjusted automatically by an amount equal to the emergency spending. Since the BEA was first enacted in 1990, both the House and Senate have supplemented its provisions with additional limitations in their respective rules concerning the use of emergency designations.
Appropriations for FY1999: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies
The text of this report is a guide to of the original (Department of Transportation and Related Agencies) appropriations bill for FY1999. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Transportation Appropriations. It summarizes the current legislative status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related legislative activity. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products.
Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options
In 1981 Congress enacted extensive changes in taxing and spending policies that supporters of these changes expected to generate sufficient revenues, despite a series of tax rate cuts, to balance the budget by FY84. After the onset of recession in early 1982, however, the Reagan Administration's projections showed widening budget deficits, which culminated in an actual FY83 deficit of $195.4 billion. Despite enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, and, more recently, the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, large deficits are expected to persist, even under continued favorable economic conditions, unless Federal taxing and spending policies are altered dramatically.
Report on the Implementation of the Grace Commission Recommendations
No Description Available.
Line Item Vetoes in the 105th Congress, First Session: A Finding Aid
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies FY1998 Appropriations
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies FY2001 Appropriations
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies FY2002 Appropriations
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2002 Appropriations
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2002 Appropriations
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2003 Appropriations
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2003 Appropriations and FY2004 Request
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2005 Appropriations and FY2006 Request
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2005 Appropriations and FY2006 Request
No Description Available.
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations and FY2007 Request
No Description Available.
Appropriations for FY2001: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations.
Appropriations for FY2001: Department of Transportation and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittees on Transportation of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations.
Repairing and Reconstructing Disaster-Damaged Roads and Bridges: The Role of Federal-Aid Highway Assistance
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of disaster damaged highways and bridges. It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance and describes the ER program in its current form. The report then discusses eligibility issues and program operation. Finally, the report discusses a number of issues, including funding, that may be of interest to Congress.
FY2015 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues
The Congressional Research Service (CRS) has selected a number of the military personnel issues considered in deliberations on H.R. 4435, the initial House-passed version of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2015; S. 2410, the version of the NDAA reported by the Senate Committee on Armed Services (S.Rept. 113-176) but not considered by the full Senate; and H.R. 3979, the proposed final version. This report provides a brief synopsis of sections in each bill that pertain to selected military personnel policy. These include end strengths, compensation, health care, and sexual assault, as well as less prominent issues that nonetheless generate significant public interest. This report focuses exclusively on the annual defense authorization process.
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2015
The federal government has played an important role in supporting research and development (R&D) efforts that have led to scientific breakthroughs and new technologies, from jet aircraft and the Internet to communications satellites, shale gas extraction, and defenses against disease. However, widespread concerns about the federal debt and recent and projected federal budget deficits are driving difficult decisions about the prioritization of R&D, both in the context of the entire federal budget and among competing needs within the federal R&D portfolio. This report begins with a discussion of the overall level of R&D funding requested in the President's budget, followed by analyses of requested R&D funding from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. The report concludes with discussion and analysis of the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for about 98% of total federal R&D funding.
Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2014
Report that provides government-wide, multi-agency, and individual agency analyses of the President's Fiscal Year 2014 request as it relates to R&D and related activities.
Agriculture and Related Agencies: FY2015 Appropriations
This report discusses various policy aspects of the Agriculture appropriations bill for FY2015, which funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), except for the Forest Service.
Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2016 Defense Appropriations Bills (H.R. 2685 and S. 1558)
This report includes selected highlights of the versions of the FY2016 Defense Appropriations Bill passed by the House on June 11, 2015 (H.R. 2685) and reported by the Senate Appropriations Committee on June 11, 2015 (S. 1558).
Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2016 National Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 1735 and S. 1376)
This report provides selected highlights of pending versions of the FY2016 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA): H.R. 1735, passed by the House of Representatives on May 15, 2015, and S. 1376, reported by the Senate Armed Services Committee on May 19, 2015.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture: Appropriations for FY1997
No Description Available.
Spectrum Management and Special Funds
No Description Available.
Spectrum Management: Auctions
This report discusses the radio frequency spectrum that is used for all forms of wireless communications, including cellular telephony, paging, personal communications service, radio and television broadcast, telephone radio relay, aeronautical and maritime radio navigation, and satellite command and control.