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Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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The Balanced Budget Proposal: Some Macroeconomic Implications
This brief report outlines some possible macroeconomic implications of observing a statutory or constitutional commitment to balance the Federal budget. It does not address the legal questions about the proposal or their implementation, nor the economic and political questions related to decisions about the level of Federal revenues or expenditures. On the latter, its analysis refers to revenue and expenditure levels, in relation to total national product, typical of recent years.
The "Deeming Resolution": A Budget Enforcement Tool
“Deeming resolution” is a term that refers to legislation deemed to serve as an annual budget resolution for purposes of establishing enforceable budget levels for a budget cycle. A deeming resolution is used when the House and Senate are late in reaching final agreement on a budget resolution or fail to reach agreement altogether.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Block Grant: FY2007 Budget Proposals
No Description Available.
Telephone Industry Residential Subscriber Line Charges and the Lifeline Option
No Description Available.
TANF Reauthorization: Side-by-Side Comparison of Current Law, S. 667 and H.R. 240 (TANF Provisions)
No Description Available.
TANF Reauthorization: Side-by-Side Comparison of Current Law and Two Versions of H.R. 4 (108th Congress)
No Description Available.
TANF Cash Benefits as of January 1, 2004
No Description Available.
Social Security: How is it Treated in Determining the Federal Budget?
No Description Available.
Small Business Administration: A Primer on Programs
No Description Available.
Side-by-Side Comparison of Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Provisions in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005
From the summary: "This report provides a comparison of Medicare, Medicaid and State Child Health Insurance Program provisions contained in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (S. 1932) as amended and passed by the Senate. The report compares the bill's provisions with current law."
Report on the Implementation of the Grace Commission Recommendations
No Description Available.
Recreation on Federal Lands
No Description Available.
Reauthorizing and Restructuring the Transportation Security Administration's Aviation Security Functions: Legislative Issues and Approaches
No Description Available.
Public Debt Ceiling: Its Current Status
No Description Available.
Proposed Termination of Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F136 Alternate Engine
No Description Available.
NATO Common Funds Burdensharing: Background and Current Issues
No Description Available.
Military Recruitment Provisions Under the No Child Left Behind Act: A Legal Analysis
No Description Available.
Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and Veterans' Affairs, FY2007 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Military Quality of Life and Veterans Affairs and Senate Military Construction and Veterans Affairs Appropriations Subcommittees. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Military Base Closures and the Impact Aid Program for Education
This report provides a brief overview of the Impact Aid program, including the calculation of Impact Aid payments to local educational agencies (LEA), and an overview of the Base Realignment and Closing (BRAC) recommendations. This is followed by a discussion of the potential effects of the BRAC recommendations on LEAs that will both lose and gain students as a result of the changes. The report concludes with a brief discussion of actions that have been taken by LEAs in anticipation of large influxes of federally connected students.
Line Item Veto: A Constitutional Analysis of Recent Proposals
This report discusses the Legislative Line Item Veto and its constitutional issues and the President’s rescission proposals must be enacted by both Houses and signed into law.
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings: Potential Economic Effects of Meeting Deficit Targets
This report discusses the reduction of federal budget deficit and the effect on the rise of interest rates.
Grace Commission
No Description Available.
Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education: Background and Funding
The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE) supports projects to encourage innovative reform and expand education opportunities to underrepresented groups. This report describes the historical context leading to the establishment of the Fund for Improvement of Postsecondary Education, provisions governing the program, and the variety of projects funded by FIPSE.
Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities
Foreign capital inflows are playing an important role in the U.S. economy by bridging the gap between domestic supplies of and demand for capital. Foreign investors now hold more than 55% of the publicly-held and -traded U.S. Treasury securities. This report relies on a comprehensive set of data on capital flows, represented by purchases and sales of U.S. government securities and U.S. and foreign corporate stocks, bonds, into and out of the United States, that is reported by the Treasury Department on a monthly basis.
FEMA's Community Disaster Loan Program
Areas struck by disasters, both natural and man-made, often experience a destruction of property and decline in economic activity. Tax collections for affected local governments may fall substantially as a consequence. At the same time, the financial and public service obligations of local governments persist and may actually increase. The unexpected loss of revenue coupled with the increased financial needs for responding to a natural disaster or terrorist act may lead local governments to seek assistance from the federal government. This report examines the federal Community Disaster Loan (CDL) program, authorized by Section 417 of the Stafford Act and administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The CDL program is intended to assist local governments that experience revenue losses and/or increased municipal operating expenses as the result of a presidentially declared major disaster.
Federally Supported Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment Programs
This report provides background information on the types of water supply and wastewater treatment projects traditionally funded by the federal government and the several existing programs to assist communities with water supply and wastewater recycling and treatment. These projects and programs are found primarily within the Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Commerce, Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Department of the Interior (DOI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Federal Enterprise Architecture and E-Government: Issues for Information Technology Management
This report discusses government efforts to increase efficiency. One approach being implemented to reduce duplicative spending and improve cross-agency collaboration is the use of enterprise architecture (EA) planning across the federal government. An EA serves as a blueprint of the business operations of an organization, and the information and technology needed to carry out these functions.
Federal Elementary and Secondary Education Programs: Reauthorization Issues
This report discusses the reauthorization of most Federal elementary and secondary education programs, which the 100th Congress is currently considering, as well as the creation of several new programs. Issues have included: (1) Federal versus ~tate/local priorities in the use of funds; (2) use of formula grants or competitive grants to allocate funds; (3) services for eligible nonpublic school children; (4) relationship between Federal programs and State-level school reform activities; and (5) information about programs and participants for the Congress.
Federal and Non-Federal Support of University Based Research
While the federal government continues to be the primary supporter of university based research and development (R&D), the financial composition of support for university-based research has changed considerably over the past 31 years. This report discusses national R&D expenditures for university based research, which reached $36.333 billion in 2002.
Family Planning: Title X of the Public Health Service Act
This report discusses Title X of the Public Health Service Act provides support for family planning clinics, research related to family planning and population, training of family planning personnel, and development and dissemination of family planning information.
Education: Federal Concerns
This issue brief analyzes six areas in which Federal policies to address the educational system's current needs are being fashioned (1) services for disadvantaged youth, (2) the financing of post-secondary education, ( 3 ) the level of Federal appropriations for education, ( 4 ) responses to adult illiteracy, (5) international economic competitiveness, and (6) the role of vocational education.
Education Proposals in Trade Competitiveness Legislation
Improvement on America's competitive position in international trade is one of the major issues confronting the 100th Congress. Most legislative proposals have included provisions for increasing the funding levels for Federal education programs, expanding current programs, or authorizing new programs. The primary goal is to improve the productivity of the Nation's workers by raising the skill level of the workforce. Discussions about education's role i n addressing the competitiveness issue have included the contribution of education to productivity growth, comparisons of the educational achievement of American school children with that of their peers in other nations , the educational needs of illiterate adults , and the role of technology in education.
Education Funding Issues for FY89
Congress considers annually the funding level for all programs administered by U.S. Department of Education (ED). The debate in this process has focused on how much the Federal Government should spend on education , and what, if any, program changes might be necessary to achieve these levels.
Constitutional Conventions: Political and Legal Questions
This report discusses the applications that have been passed by 32 of the necessary 34 State legislatures to convene a convention to propose an amendment prohibiting abortion. Because this process for amending the Constitution has never been used, several unresolved legal and policy questions arise governing the convening and the authority of such a convention.
Changes to Section 8 Housing Voucher Renewal Funding, FY2003-FY2006
This report describes changes in the formula that were included in appropriations bills for FY2003 through FY2006; it will not be updated.
Campus-Based Student Financial Aid Programs Under the Higher Education Act
This report discusses the issues likely to be considered during reauthorization are whether the campus-based programs provide types of aid to students that are not or cannot be provided via other postsecondary aid programs, and whether the current formulas for allocating funds to institutions for the operation of these programs are optimal. Provisions specific to each program, such as requirements for community service under FWS and terms and conditions of Perkins Loans also may be considered.
Budget Deficits: Causes, Effects and Some Remedial Options
In 1981 Congress enacted extensive changes in taxing and spending policies that supporters of these changes expected to generate sufficient revenues, despite a series of tax rate cuts, to balance the budget by FY84. After the onset of recession in early 1982, however, the Reagan Administration's projections showed widening budget deficits, which culminated in an actual FY83 deficit of $195.4 billion. Despite enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, and, more recently, the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, large deficits are expected to persist, even under continued favorable economic conditions, unless Federal taxing and spending policies are altered dramatically.
AIDS: The Ryan White CARE Act
This report discusses the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act, which makes federal funds available to metropolitan areas and states to assist in health care costs and support services for individuals and families affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This report discusses related legislation and appropriations.
Veterans' Medical Care: FY2007 Appropriations
No Description Available.
Land and Water Conservation Fund: Current Status and Issues
No Description Available.
Foreign Policy Budget Trends: A Thirty-Year Review
This report serves as a resource for the annual congressional debate on foreign policy spending, providing context and a trend analysis of the past 30 years. It considers the full scope of the International Affairs Budget, or Budget Function 150, as foreign policy spending is designated within the context of the Congressional Budget Resolution. It also illustrates spending trends of the major components that make up Budget Function 150. Other relevant “snapshots” of international spending are also examined, including how foreign aid resources have been allocated across several sub-categories and trends that are especially applicable to current funding priorities such as confronting global health problems and increasing aid to Africa.
Foreign Operations (House)/State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs (Senate): FY2007 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and the Senate Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Homeland Security Department: FY2007 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Homeland Security. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant.
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
This report discusses the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act), which authorizes the President to issue major disaster or emergency declarations in response to catastrophes that overwhelm state and local governments.
Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy - Issues and Options for Congress
No Description Available.
FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Hurricane Katrina Relief
This report discusses FY2006 supplemental appropriations for Iraq and other international activities, as well as Katrina hurricane relief.
The Debt Limit: The Ongoing Need for Increases
The surpluses over the four fiscal years 1998-2001 reduced debt held by the public by $448 billion. More than offsetting this debt reduction, the surpluses credited to debt-holding government accounts (which generally must invest the surpluses in federal debt), increased their holdings by $853 billion over the same period. The combination ($853 billion minus $448 billion) raised total federal debt by $405 billion. During 2002, debt subject to limit increased enough to reach the then current statutory debt limit, $5.95 trillion, in early April and again in May 2002. Congress passed and the President signed legislation (P.L. 108-24) increasing the limit to $6.4 trillion in June 2002.
Spectrum Management: Auctions
This report discusses the radio frequency spectrum that is used for all forms of wireless communications, including cellular telephony, paging, personal communications service, radio and television broadcast, telephone radio relay, aeronautical and maritime radio navigation, and satellite command and control.
Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropriations
The House passed its version of the FY2007 defense authorization bill, H.R. 5122, on May 11. The bill authorizes $513 billion for national defense, including $50 billion in emergency funding for operations in Iraq and elsewhere in the first months of the fiscal year. The Senate Armed Services Committee marked up its version of the bill, S. 2766, on May 4. It also authorizes $513 billion, including emergency funding. Senate floor action appears likely in June. House subcommittee markup of the defense appropriations bill is tentatively scheduled for June 7.
Defense: FY2007 Authorization and Appropriations
The House passed its version of the FY2007 defense authorization bill, H.R. 5122, on May 11. The bill authorizes $513 billion for national defense, including $50 billion in emergency funding for operations in Iraq and elsewhere in the first months of the fiscal year. The Senate Armed Services Committee marked up its version of the bill, S. 2766, on May 4. It also authorizes $513 billion, including emergency funding. Senate floor action appears likely in June. House subcommittee markup of the defense appropriations bill is tentatively scheduled for June 7.