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Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief

Description: In response to the widespread destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, the 109th Congress enacted two FY2005 emergency supplemental appropriations bills, which together provided $62.3 billion for emergency response and recovery needs. This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities.
Date: August 22, 2006
Creator: Bea, Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief

Description: In response to the widespread destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, the 109th Congress enacted two FY2005 emergency supplemental appropriations bills, which together provide $62.3 billion for emergency response and recovery needs. However, the funding streams of these appropriated funds and amounts for disaster recovery have changed and appear likely to undergo further changes, largely at the request of the Administration. This report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities.
Date: May 16, 2006
Creator: Bea, Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

Description: This report tracks the process by which Congress provides the funding for U.S. assessed contributions to the regular budgets of the United Nations, its agencies, and U.N. peacekeeping operation accounts, as well as for U.S. voluntary contributions to U.N. system programs and funds. It includes information on the President's request and the congressional response, as well as congressional initiatives during this legislative process. Basic information is provided to help the reader understand this process.
Date: August 10, 2006
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jordan: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of Jordanian politics and current issues in U.S.-Jordanian relations. It provides a brief overview of Jordan's government and economy and of its cooperation in promoting Arab-Israeli peace and other U.S. policy objectives in the Middle East.
Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: Prados, Alfred B. & Sharp, Jeremy M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Budget Reconciliation Legislation in 2005-2006 Under the FY2006 Budget Resolution

Description: The FY2006 budget resolution, which was agreed to by the House and Senate on April 28, 2005, included reconciliation instructions for: (1) an omnibus bill to reduce mandatory outlays by about $35 billion over a five-year period, covering FY2006-FY2010; (2) a bill to reduce revenues by $70 billion over the same period; and (3) a bill to increase the limit on the public debt by $781 billion. Congressional action on the resultant reconciliation legislation, while ultimately successful, was marked by controversy and delay. As of May 2006, congressional action on the reconciliation legislation called for in the FY2006 budget resolution was completed.
Date: July 28, 2006
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

Description: The Administration's Mid-Session Review (July 2006) had a revised deficit estimate for FY2006 of $296 billion (2.3% of gross domestic product). This was over $100 billion below the FY2006 deficit estimate in the President's FY2007 budget (February 2006). On March 17, 2005, the House and Senate adopted their respective budget resolutions for FY2006. After extensive leadership discussion, a conference reached agreement on April 28; both chambers adopted it later that day. The conference agreement included reconciliation instructions for mandatory spending reductions, tax reductions, and an increase in the statutory debt limit. This report explores these issues in full, as well as detailing additional legislation regarding the FY2006 Budget and budget resolutions.
Date: July 25, 2006
Creator: Winters, Philip D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Aircraft Carriers: Proposed Retirement of USS John F. Kennedy -- Issues and Options for Congress

Description: The Navy's FY2007 budget proposes retiring the conventionally-powered aircraft carrier John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and reducing the size of the carrier force from 12 ships to 11. One potential issue for Congress is whether the carrier force should include 12 ships or some other number. If a carrier is to be retired in the near term so as to reduce the carrier force to 11 ships, a second potential issue is whether that carrier should be the Kennedy or another ship. Potential alternatives to the Kennedy include the conventionally-powered Kitty Hawk and the nuclear-powered carriers Enterprise and Vinson. A third potential issue for Congress concerns the relative military advantages of different homeporting arrangements for the carrier force.
Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy in February 2006 proposed to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including, among other things, 11 aircraft carriers, 48 attack submarines (SSNs), 88 cruisers and destroyers, 55 Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), 31 amphibious ships, and a Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F), squadron with 12 new-construction amphibious and sealift-type ships. The Navy says that for its shipbuilding plans to be affordable and executable, the Navy needs to control certain non-shipbuilding expenditures and build ships within estimated costs. The Navy's shipbuilding plans raise potential issues regarding the shipbuilding industrial base, particularly in the areas of the submarine design and engineering base, and the surface combatant construction base.
Date: June 22, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: The Navy in February 2006 proposed to maintain in coming years a fleet of 313 ships, including, among other things, 11 aircraft carriers, 48 attack submarines (SSNs), 88 cruisers and destroyers, 55 Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), 31 amphibious ships, and a Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future), or MPF(F), squadron with 12 new-construction amphibious and sealift-type ships. The Navy says that for its shipbuilding plans to be affordable and executable, the Navy needs to control certain non-shipbuilding expenditures and build ships within estimated costs. The Navy's shipbuilding plans raise potential issues regarding the shipbuilding industrial base, particularly in the areas of the submarine design and engineering base, and the surface combatant construction base.
Date: August 14, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance

Description: Large-scale assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, in April 2003, Congress approved a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY2003 Supplemental Appropriation. In November 2003, the FY2004 Supplemental Appropriation provided an additional $18.4 billion for the IRRF. Many reconstruction efforts on the ground are underway, but security concerns have slowed progress considerably. Of the nearly $29 billion in appropriated funds from all accounts directed at reconstruction purposes, close to 40% is targeted at infrastructure projects -- roads, sanitation, electric power, oil production, etc. About 38% is used to train and equip Iraqi security forces. A range of programs -- accounting for roughly 22% of appropriations -- are in place to offer expert advice to the Iraqi government, establish business centers, rehabilitate schools and health clinics, provide school book and vaccinations, etc.
Date: May 5, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Iraq: Recent Developments in Reconstruction Assistance

Description: Large-scale assistance programs are being undertaken by the United States following the war with Iraq. To fund such programs, in April 2003, Congress approved a $2.48 billion Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) in the FY2003 Supplemental Appropriation. Additional and similar funding is also outlined in this report. Many reconstruction efforts in Iraq -- including infrastructure projects, the training and equipping of Iraqi security forces, and general political and societal reinforcement -- are underway, but security concerns have slowed progress considerably.
Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

V-22 Osprey Tilt-Rotor Aircraft

Description: The V-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor aircraft, capable of vertical or short take off and landing, with forward flight like a conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The MV-22 is the Marine Corps' top aviation priority. Marine Corps leaders believe that the Osprey will provide them an unprecedented capability to quickly and decisively project power from well over the horizon. The V-22 program has been under development for over 25 years. Safety and maintenance concerns have arisen over this period. Supporters tout the V-22's potential operational capabilities relative to the helicopters it will replace. It will fly faster, farther, and with more payload than the currently used machinery. Detractors tend to emphasize the V-22's long development schedule, its three fatal accidents, and its high cost relative to the helicopters it will replace.
Date: August 23, 2006
Creator: Bolkcom, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emergency Funding for Agriculture: A Brief History of Supplemental Appropriations, FY1989-FY2006

Description: From FY1989 through FY2006, 33 appropriations, authorization, or farm disaster acts added approximately $55.4 billion in supplemental funding for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs. The two most recent supplemental appropriations were provided in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the Gulf of Mexico and in preparation for a possible U.S. outbreak of avian influenza. Some FY1989, the vast majority of the total supplemental funding has been paid directly to farmers, primarily through two mechanisms: "market loss payments" and crop disaster payments. This report includes the total annual funding additions in the 33 acts providing economic and farm disaster assistance through USDA programs since FY1989.
Date: July 3, 2006
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United Nations System Funding: Congressional Issues

Description: Congressional debate over U.N. funding focuses on the following questions: (1) What is the appropriate level of U.S. funding for U.N. system operations and programs? (@) What U.S. funding actions are most likely to produce a positive continuation of U.N. system reform efforts? The U.N. system includes the parent U.N. organization, a number of affiliated agencies, voluntary funds and programs, and peacekeeping operations. For nearly 60 years, the United States has been the single largest financial contributor to the U.N. system. Both Congress and the executive branch have been pressing U.N. system organizations to reform, especially to improve management and budgeting practices. In recent years, the U.N. has undertaken reforms, including a restructuring of its financial assessment system, allowing the U.S. to pay some of its arrears.
Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Browne, Marjorie Ann & Bite, Vita
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Research and Development: Budgeting and Priority-Setting Issues, 109th Congress

Description: Federal research and development (R&D) funding priorities reflect presidential policies and national needs. For FY2007, R&D is requested at almost $137 billion of budget authority, about 1.8% more than enacted in FY2006. The FY2007 budget would fund three interagency R&D initiatives: networking and information technology; climate change science; and nanotechnology. The Administration is using performance measures for R&D budgeting, including the Government Performance and Results Act and the Program Assessment Rating Tool.
Date: June 14, 2006
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2006

Description: This report is a research aid, which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2). This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Table 3 shows real growth or decline in national defense funding for FY1940-FY2009. Table 4 gives a more detailed picture of both regular and supplemental defense appropriations from the 103rd Congress to the present (FY1993-FY2005). Table 5 shows the President’s DOD appropriations budget requests for FY1950-FY2005 vs. final amount enacted.
Date: June 13, 2006
Creator: Coipuram, Thomas, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals

Description: The federal government's role in financing school construction and renovation continues to be an issue in the 109th Congress, although school construction has generally been considered a state and local responsibility. According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the unmet need for school construction and renovation is estimated to be $127 billion. NCES indicates that three-quarters of the nation's schools report needing funds to bring their buildings into a "good overall condition." Indirect federal support for school construction is currently provided by exempting the interest on state and local governmental bonds from federal income taxes, as well as other tax code provisions. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, an estimated 400 schools need to be rebuilt in Louisiana and Mississippi.
Date: October 24, 2005
Creator: Boren, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and Mineral Issues in the FY2006 Budget Reconciliation Bill

Description: Several resource issues that are designed to generate revenue for the federal Treasury have been proposed for the FY2006 budget reconciliation bill. The most controversial of these provisions recommended by the House Resources Committee and Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee would open part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil and gas development. The House panel also approved a provision that would allow coastal states to “opt out” of the current offshore oil and gas development moratoria, increase fees for hardrock mining and patents, dispose of certain federal lands, and begin an oil shale and tar sands leasing program.
Date: November 22, 2005
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Economics of the Federal Budget Surplus

Description: Fiscal 1998 marked the first year that total receipts exceeded outlays in the federal budget since 1969. Since then, the budget has been in surplus and official projections expect the budget to remain in surplus for the foreseeable future. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) baseline projections indicate that the budget surpluses are expected to grow steadily over the next 10 years.
Date: March 30, 2001
Creator: Cashell, Brian W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appropriations for FY2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies

Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Agriculture.
Date: July 15, 2004
Creator: Chite, Ralph M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department