Congressional Research Service Reports - 3,017 Matching Results

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Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects

Description: This report is intended to address questions that arise frequently related to the topic of government shutdowns. It discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Date: November 30, 2017
Creator: Brass, Clinton T.; Brudnick, Ida A.; Keegan, Natalie; McMillion, Barry J.; Rollins, John W. & Yeh, Brian T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Columbia (SSBN-826) Class Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Columbia-class program, a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) to replace the Navy's current force of 14 Ohio-class SSBNs. The program was previously known as the Ohio replacement program (ORP) or SSBN(X) program. The Navy has identified the Columbia-class program as the Navy's top priority program. The Navy wants to procure the first Columbia-class boat in FY2021. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $842.9 million in advance procurement (AP) funding and $1,041.7 million in research and development funding for the program. The program poses a number of funding and oversight issues for Congress. Decisions that Congress makes on the Columbia-class program could substantially affect U.S. military capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: November 22, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. The current and planned size and composition of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been oversight matters for the congressional defense committees for many years. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget, as amended on May 24, 2017, requests the procurement of nine new ships, including one Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class aircraft carrier, two Virginia-class attack submarines, two DDG-51 class destroyers, two Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs), one TAO-205 class oiler, and one towing, salvage, and rescue ship. On December 15, 2016, the Navy released a new force-structure goal that calls for achieving and maintaining a fleet of 355 ships of certain types and numbers. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's force structure and shipbuilding plans. Decisions that Congress makes on this issue can substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: November 22, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FDA Human Medical Product User Fee Programs: In Brief

Description: This report discusses FDA human medical product user fees for prescription drugs, medical devices, generic drugs, and biosimilars which are charged to companies producing the products and make up a large portion of the FDA's revenues. User fees are authorized in legislation on a five-year cycle, with authority for their actual collection and expenditure provided each year through the annual appropriations process. Appendix A outlines various features of the user fee programs.
Date: November 21, 2017
Creator: Dabrowska, Agata; Johnson, Judith A.; Sarata, Amanda K. & Thaul, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

End-Year DOD Contract Spending

Description: This report discusses the levels of year-end contract spending by defense agencies and reasons this occurs and possible wasteful spending practices.
Date: November 17, 2017
Creator: Schwartz, Moshe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of the Budget Control Act Discretionary Spending Caps on a Continuing Resolution

Description: This report answers common questions regarding the government's discretionary spending limits under the Budget Control Act which if they are exceeded trigger sequestration. The result of continuing budget resolutions and possibilities for fiscal year 2018 are addressed.
Date: November 14, 2017
Creator: Lynch, Megan S. & Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition strategies and proposed funding levels for the Aegis BMD program. Congress's decisions on the Aegis BMD program could significantly affect U.S. BMD capabilities and funding requirements, and the BMD-related industrial base.
Date: November 9, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fiscal Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act

Description: This report discusses the FY2018 defense budget request and provides a summary of congressional action on the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for fiscal year (FY) 2018. The annual NDAA authorizes appropriations for the Department of Defense (DOD) and defense-related nuclear energy programs of the Department of Energy and typically includes provisions affecting DOD policies or organization. Unlike an appropriations bill, the NDAA does not provide budget authority for government activities.
Date: November 8, 2017
Creator: Towell, Pat & Williams, Lynn M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clearing the Air on the Debt Limit

Description: This report provides clarifications on five common debt limit contentions or questions which are: The United States had debt limits before 1917, Did the Federal government default in the 1970s?, Were "clean" debt limit increases once the norm?, Could a platinum coin avoid a binding debt limit?, Would the Fourteenth Amendment allow the President to act unilaterally?, and Is the debt limit obsolete?
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew & Thomas, Kenneth R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The National Science Foundation: Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations and Funding History

Description: This report outlines the National Science Foundation's 2017 fiscal year appropriations request and compares it with past years.The Trump Administration is seeking $6.653 billion for NSF in FY2018, an $819 million decrease (-11%) from the FY2017 enacted level of $7.472 billion.
Date: November 2, 2017
Creator: Harris, Laurie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wildfire Management Funding: Background, Issues, and Fiscal Year 2018 Appropriations

Description: This report provides an overview of the accounts that fund wildfire management activities and historical wildfire management appropriations data, as well as information on FY2018 appropriations. The Administration requested a combined $3.72 billion in FY2018, a 12% decrease from FY2017 enacted levels. On September 14, 2017, the Housed passed H.R. 3354, an omnibus measure covering all 12 appropriations bills, including the FY2018 Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies bill. This bill would provide $3.85 billion combined for wildfire purposes, an 8% decrease from FY2017 enacted levels and 3% above the Administration's requested levels.
Date: October 31, 2017
Creator: Hoover, Katie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Frigate (FFG[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and discusses potential issues for Congress regarding the Navy's FFG(X) program, a program to procure a new class of guided-missile frigates. The FFG(X) program was initiated as part of the Navy's FY2018 budget submission. The Navy wants to procure the first FFG(X) in FY2020. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $143.5 million in research and development funding for the program. The FFG(X) program presents several potential oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the program could affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: October 26, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Congress Faces Calls to Address Expired Funds for Primary Care

Description: This report discusses funding for the Health Centers Program and the National Health Service Corps (NHSC) which provide medical care to underserved populations through health centers and provide scholarships and loan repayment to physicians in exchange for working in underserved areas for at least two years through the NHSC.
Date: October 18, 2017
Creator: Heisler, Elayne J. & Redhead, C. Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on three potential new weapons that could improve the ability of Navy surface ships to defend themselves against enemy missiles--solid state lasers (SSLs), the electromagnetic railgun (EMRG), and the hypervelocity projectile (HVP).The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Navy's funding requests and proposed acquisition strategies for these three potential new weapons for the 2018 fiscal year. Congress's decisions on this issue could affect future Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the defense industrial base.
Date: October 17, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Aegis ballistic missile defense (BMD) program, which is carried out by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and the Navy, and gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations.
Date: October 13, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on multiyear procurement (MYP) and block buy contracting (BBC),1 which are special contracting mechanisms that Congress permits the Department of Defense (DOD) to use for a limited number of defense acquisition programs. Compared to the standard or default approach of annual contracting, MYP and BBC have the potential for reducing weapon procurement costs by several percent.
Date: October 12, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald & Schwartz, Moshe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense Primer: Military Pay Raise

Description: This report discusses military pay raises and the annual statutory basic pay raise based on changes in the Employment Cost Index. It includes descriptions of information related to the topic along with a table of historical increases in basic pay.
Date: October 10, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparing DHS Component Funding, Fiscal Year 2017: Fact Sheet

Description: This report shows the 2016 fiscal year Department of Homeland Security (DHS) budget amounts and the requests for DHS for the 2017 fiscal year. The main chart only shows the original budget request by the Obama Administration and shows supplemental funding requests by the Trump Administration in March 2017 and September 2017 separately.
Date: October 6, 2017
Creator: Painter, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trends in the Timing and Size of DHS Appropriations: In Brief

Description: This report examines trends in the timing and size of homeland security appropriations measures. Figure 1 shows the history of the timing of the annual DHS appropriations bills as they have moved through various stages of the legislative process. Initially, DHS appropriations were enacted relatively promptly, as stand-alone legislation. However, the bill is no longer an outlier from the consolidation and delayed timing that has affected other annual appropriations legislation. FY2017 marked the latest finalization of DHS annual appropriations levels in the history of the DHS Appropriations Act. The second table and set of charts presents information on DHS discretionary appropriations, as enacted, for FY2004 through FY2017. Table 1 provides data in nominal dollars, while Table 2 provides data in constant FY2013 dollars to allow for comparisons over time. Figure 2 represents Table 2's data in a visual format. The totals include annual appropriations as well as supplemental appropriations.
Date: October 5, 2017
Creator: Painter, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy DDG-51 and DDG-1000 Destroyer Programs: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report presents background information and potential oversight issues for Congress on the Navy's Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) and Zumwalt (DDG-1000) class destroyer programs. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests funding for the procurement of two DDG-51s, and authority for a new multiyear procurement (MYP) contract covering DDG-51s to be procured in FY2018-FY2022. Decisions that Congress makes concerning destroyer procurement could substantially affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: October 3, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) program. A total of 29 LCSs have been procured through FY2017. For FY2018, the Navy is requesting the procurement of 30th and 31st LCSs. The LCS program presents several oversight issues for Congress. Congress's decisions on the program will affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements, and the shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: October 3, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in Navy budgets, particularly in a context of constraints on Navy budgets and Navy desires to devote resources to developing "high end" combat capabilities for countering improved conventional military capabilities of countries such as China and Russia.
Date: October 2, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO205) class oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 20 fleet oilers for the Navy. The TAO-205 program was previously known as the TAO(X) program. The first ship in the program was funded in FY2016 at a cost of $674.2 million. The Navy's proposed FY2018 budget requests $466.0 million in procurement funding for the second ship, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2018, and $75.1 million in advance procurement (AP) funding for the third ship, which the Navy wants to procure in FY2019. Decisions that Congress makes regarding the program could affect Navy capabilities and funding requirements and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Date: October 2, 2017
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department