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Navy Littoral Combat Ship/Frigate (LCS/FF) Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Navy's Littoral Combat Ship/Frigate (LCS/FF) program, a program to procure a total of 40, and possibly as many as 52, small surface combatants (SSCs), meaning LCSs and frigates.
In Brief: Highlights of Fiscal Year 2018 Defense Appropriations Actions
This report outlines the defense related appropriations request for fiscal year 2018 and selected issues in Congress dealing with the defense budget.
Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: Fiscal Year 2018
This report provides an overview and analysis of FY2018 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The primary focus of this report is on Congressional direction and funding provided to DHS through the appropriations process, though note is also made of funding made available to DHS outside this process (e.g., user fees and trust funds). It includes an Appendix with definitions of key budget terms used throughout the suite of Congressional Research Service reports on homeland security appropriations. It also directs the reader to other reports providing context for and additional details regarding specific component appropriations and issues engaged through the FY2018 appropriations process.
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
Federal Research and Development Funding: Fiscal Year 2018
This report begins with a discussion of the overall level of President Trump's FY2018 R&D request, followed by analyses of the R&D funding request from a variety of perspectives and for selected multiagency R&D initiatives. The report concludes with discussion and analysis of the R&D budget requests of selected federal departments and agencies that, collectively, account for nearly 99% of total federal R&D funding. Selected terms associated with federal R&D funding are defined in the text box on the next page. Appendix A provides a list of acronyms and abbreviations.
Legislative Branch Appropriations: Frequently Asked Questions
This report responds to frequently-asked questions about legislative branch appropriations, including: items that are funded within this bill; development, presentation, and consideration of the legislative branch budget requests; the legislative branch budget in historical perspective; and recent actions.
Defense: FY2017 Budget Request, Authorization, and Appropriations
This report discusses the current administration's request of $523.9 billion to cover the fiscal year 2017 discretionary "base budget" of the Department of Defense (DOD).
The Federal Budget: Overview and Issues for FY2018 and Beyond
This report summarizes issues surrounding the federal budget, examines policy changes relevant to the budget framework for FY2018, and discusses recent major policy proposals included in the President's FY2018 budget. It concludes by addressing major short- and long-term fiscal challenges facing the federal government.
DHS Appropriations FY2017: Departmental Management and Operations
This report outlines the fiscal year 2017 appropriations for the Department of Homeland Security, Departmental Management and Operations made by Congress.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. The planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been matters of concern for the congressional defense committees for the past several years.
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program.
Shutdown of the Federal Government: Causes, Processes, and Effects
This report discusses the causes of funding gaps and shutdowns of the federal government, processes that are associated with shutdowns, and how agency operations may be affected by shutdowns. The report concludes with a discussion of potential issues for Congress.
Legislative Branch: FY2018 Appropriations
This report discusses the the legislative branch appropriations bill (FY2018, which provides funding for the Senate; House of Representatives;Joint Items; Capitol Police; Office of Compliance; Congressional Budget Office (CBO); Architect of the Capitol (AOC); Library of Congress (LOC), including the Congressional Research Service (CRS); Government Publishing Office (GPO); Government Accountability Office (GAO); Open World Leadership Center; and the John C. Stennis Center.
Department of Defense Contractor and Troop Levels in Iraq and Afghanistan: 2007-2016
This report provides background information for Congress on the levels of Department of Defense (DOD) troop and contractor personnel deployed in support of prior and ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Transportation Spending Under an Earmark Ban
This report explains what earmarks are and discusses their use in surface transportation finance. It then discusses how federal transportation funding is distributed with a ban in place and how Members of Congress might influence the distribution.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, Fiscal Year 2018: In Brief
This report illustrates the appropriations for various parts of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for fiscal year 2018 compared with funding levels for fiscal year 2017 in a series of charts and tables.
Fiscal Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues
This report discusses military personnel issues considered during deliberations on H.R. 2810 and S. 1519 which were passed on July 14, 2017 as the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018. A brief synopsis of sections in each bill that pertain to selected personnel policies such as military end-strengths, pay and benefits, and other major policy issues are provided.
The Budget Control Act: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses several frequently-asked questions related to the Budget Control Act of 2011 (BCA) and the annual budget.
Biennial Budgeting: Issues, Options, and Congressional Actions
This report discusses biennial budgeting, which includes several variations. It may involve multiyear authorizations, two-year budget resolutions, two-year appropriations, or some combination of the three.
FY2018 Defense Budget Request: The Basics
This report discusses the federal budget request for fiscal year (FY) 2018 released by the Trump Administration on May 23, 2017.
Air Force B-21 Raider Long-Range Strike Bomber
This report discusses the development of a new long-range bomber aircraft, the B-21 Raider (previously known as LRS-B), and proposes to acquire at least 100 of them.
FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act: Selected Military Personnel Issues
This report focuses exclusively on the annual national defense authorization act (NDAA) legislative process. It provides a brief synopsis of sections in each bill (H.R. 4909 as passed by the House on May 26, 2016, and S. 2943 as passed by the Senate on July 21, 2016) that pertain to selected personnel policies. These include issues such as military end-strengths, pay and benefits, military healthcare (TRICARE), military retirement, and other major policy issues.
Comparing DHS Component Funding, FY2017: Fact Sheet
This report provides figures that show total net discretionary appropriations for Department of Homeland Security (DHS) broken down by component, and ordered from largest to smallest by FY2016 enacted funding level.
President's FY2018 Budget Proposes Cuts in Public Health Service (PHS) Agency Funding
This report outlines the significant reductions in funding for the Public Health Service (PHS) proposed by the President's FY2018 budget.
Federal Health Centers: An Overview
This report provides an overview of the federal Health Center Program, including its statutory authority, program requirements, and appropriation levels. It also describes federal programs available to assist health center operations, including the federally-qualified health center (FQHC) designation for Medicare and Medicaid payments, and concludes with two appendices that describe FQHC payments for Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries.
Additional Troops for Afghanistan? Considerations for Congress
This report discusses the possibility of a proposal by the Trump Administration to deploy additional ground forces to Afghanistan and somewhat broaden their mission.
Fact Sheet: FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) DOD Reform Proposals
This report discusses information on extant Department of Defense (DOD) reform proposals being considered during the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act debates. It includes key provisions incorporated in H.R. 4909, the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) reported by the House Armed Services Committee on May 4, 2016 (H.Rept. 114-537), and S. 2943, the FY2017 National Defense Authorization Act reported by the Senate Armed Services Committee on May 18, 2016 (S.Rept. 114-255).
The Federal Budget Deficit and the Business Cycle
This report discusses the annual federal budget deficit, which has fallen significantly over the course of the current economic expansion, from a high of 9.8% of gross domestic product (GDP) in FY2009 to 3.2% of GDP in FY2016.
Energy and Water Development Appropriations for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation: In Brief
This report discusses the Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN) programs, which was reorganized starting with the FY2016 request.
"Fiscal Space" and the Federal Budget
This report discusses plans for the federal budget and the concept of "fiscal space," or the amount of room available for additional government borrowing.
Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges
This report discusses multiple challenges the government of Puerto Rico faces in the fall of 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations. The Puerto Rican government outlined a medium-term strategy to address those challenges in a fiscal plan put forth in mid-September 2015.
Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) program.
Grants Work in a Congressional Office
This report discusses the federal grants funding that goes to state and local governments. Members of Congress receive numerous requests from grant seekers, including state and local governments, nonprofit social service and community action organizations, private research groups, small businesses, and individuals, for information and help in obtaining funds for projects.
Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicle (ACV) and Marine Personnel Carrier (MPC): Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses issues surrounding the funding for development of Marine Corps Amphibious Combat Vehicles (ACVs) and Marine Personnel Carriers (MPCs). The Marines are required by law to have the necessary equipment to conduct amphibious operations and land operations.
Appropriations Subcommittee Structure: History of Changes from 1920 to 2017
This report details the evolution of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees' subcommittee structure from the 1920s to the present.
Defense: FY2017 Budget Request, Authorization, and Appropriations
This report discusses the current administration's request of $523.9 billion to cover the fiscal year 2017 discretionary "base budget" of the Department of Defense (DOD).
Legislative Branch: FY2017 Appropriations
The first section of this report provides an overview of the consideration of fiscal year 2017 legislative branch appropriations, with subsections covering each action. It is followed by a section on prior year actions and funding, which contains historical tables. The report then addresses the FY2017 budget requests, requested administrative language, and selected funding issues for individual legislative branch agencies and entities.
Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background and Status
This report discusses funding for war-related activities, which has been largely provided through supplemental appropriation acts and/or designated as an "emergency" or "overseas contingency operation/global war on terror" (OCO/GWOT) requirement.
The Budget Reconciliation Process: Stages of Consideration
This report discusses the budget reconciliation process which allows Congress to use an expedited procedure when considering legislation that would bring existing spending, revenue, and debt limit laws into compliance with current fiscal priorities established in the annual budget resolution.
How Treasury Issues Debt
This report examines Treasury's debt management practices, focusing on the auction process, how prices and interest rates of securities are determined, and the role of market participants in the process. It also addresses the role of debt plays in influencing present and future budget outcomes.
Navy Irregular Warfare and Counterterrorism Operations: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and potential issues for Congress on the Navy's irregular warfare (IW) and counterterrorism (CT) operations. The Navy's IW and CT activities pose a number of potential oversight issues for Congress, including how much emphasis to place on IW and CT activities in future Navy budgets.
DOD Security Cooperation: An Overview of Authorities and Issues
This report provides a general overview of current Department of Defense (DOD) Title 10 authorities to assist foreign governments, militaries, security forces, and populations funded by the DOD budget. It presents background information; provides summary overviews of nine categories of security cooperation assistance and activities; and discusses recent issues related to the development, implementation, sustainment, and coordination of security cooperation to support continuing congressional oversight.
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2017
This report is a research aid that lists the Department of Defense (DOD) authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2) for FY1970-FY2017. This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers.
"Fiscal Space" and the Federal Budget
This report discusses plans for the federal budget and the concept of "fiscal space," or the amount of room available for additional government borrowing.
The Federal Budget Deficit and the Business Cycle
This report discusses the annual federal budget deficit, which has fallen significantly over the course of the current economic expansion, from a high of 9.8% of gross domestic product (GDP) in FY2009 to 3.2% of GDP in FY2016
Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the John Lewis (TAO-205) class oiler shipbuilding program, a program to build a new class of 17 fleet oilers for the Navy.
Broadband Internet Access and the Digital Divide: Federal Assistance Programs
This report provides an overview of the "digital divide," which is a term used to describe a perceived gap between those Americans who use or have access to telecommunications and information technologies and those who do not.
Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of the FY2017 Military Construction Appropriations Bills
This report presents a fact sheet that summarizes selected highlights of the military construction and military family housing portions of the FY2017 Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act.
Department of Defense Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E): Appropriations Structure
This report discusses the Department of Defense's (DOD's) research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) in support of its mission requirements.
Navy Force Structure and Shipbuilding Plans: Background and Issues for Congress
This report presents background information and issues for Congress concerning the Navy's ship force-structure goals and shipbuilding plans. The planned size of the Navy, the rate of Navy ship procurement, and the prospective affordability of the Navy's shipbuilding plans have been matters of concern for the congressional defense committees for the past several years.