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Public Aid to Faith-Based Organizations (Charitable Choice): Background and Selected Legal Issues

Description: This report provides background on ten selected questions related to public aid for faith-based organization. Despite the ongoing controversy about charitable choice, not until the 107th Congress were there full hearings and extended debates on its constitutionality, efficacy, and public policy implications.
Date: March 28, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appropriations for FY1999: An Overview

Description: Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes.
Date: April 28, 1999
Creator: Anderson, J. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Department of Defense Fuel Costs in Iraq

Description: Since the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the average price of fuels purchased for military operations in Iraq has steadily increased. The disparity between the higher price of fuel supplied to the United States Central Command compared to Iraq's civilian population has been a point of contention. Several factors contribute to the disparity, including the different types of fuel used by the military compared to Iraqi civilians, the Iraqi government's price subsidies, and the level pricing that the DOD's Defense Logistics Agency charges for military customers around the world. The Iraqi government has been pressured to reduce its fuel subsidy and black market fuel prices remain higher than the official subsidized price.
Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Andrews, Anthony & Schwartz, Moshe
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act

Description: This report looks at the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to “assist the development and support of a sustainable commercial biofuels industry" which was entered into by the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Navy. It raises issues and concerns for Congress to consider when deciding how to fund MOU.
Date: June 22, 2012
Creator: Andrews, Anthony; Bracmort, Kelsi; Brown, Jared T. & Else, Daniel H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Analysis of Changes Made by P.L. 108-446

Description: This report discusses the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA — 20 U.S.C. §1400 et seq.), which is both a grants statute and a civil rights statute. It provides federal funding for the education of children with disabilities and requires, as a condition for the receipt of such funds, the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). The statute also contains detailed due process provisions to ensure the provision of FAPE. Originally enacted in 1975, the act responded to increased awareness of the need to educate children with disabilities, and to judicial decisions requiring that states provide an education for children with disabilities if they provided an education for children without disabilities.
Date: January 5, 2005
Creator: Apling, Richard N & Jones, Nancy Lee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula

Description: This report discusses Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which assists participating states to serve school-age children with disabilities. The state funding formula, which provides a foundation amount based on states’ FY1999 grants and allocates remaining amounts based on states’ shares of school-age children and of school-age poor children, authorizes a maximum allotment per disabled child served of 40% of the national average per pupil expenditure (APPE). Annual appropriations have never been sufficient to provide each state its maximum allotment; in FY2002, states will receive approximately 16.5% of the national APPE per disabled child served. Some advocates for the program have called upon the Congress to fully fund the formula. An estimated $18.2 billion would be required to provide states the maximum allotment allowed per disabled child served in FY2002, about 2.4 times more than the appropriation of $7.5 billion for FY2002.
Date: December 27, 2001
Creator: Apling, Richard N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Overview of Major Provisions

Description: The Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act (IDEA) providesfundsto statesfor the education of children with disabilities. It contains detailed requirements for the receipt of these funds, including the core requirement of the provision of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). IDEA was comprehensively revised in 1997 by P.L. 105-17, but Congress has continued to grapple with issuesrelating to the Act. This report provides a brief overview of the Act with particular attention paid to issues of recent congressional concern, such as funding and the provision of FAPE for children with disabilities found to have brought a weapon to school.
Date: January 11, 2002
Creator: Apling, Richard N. & Jones, Nancy L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Possible Voucher Issues

Description: Congress is considering reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) program (the main federal program providing special education and related services to children with disabilities). Among the options being discussed is increasing parental choice under IDEA. This report provides background on current federal choice programs and on the Florida McKay Scholarship program, which provides scholarships for children with disabilities enrolled in the state’s public schools to attend other public schools or to attend participating private schools. The report concludes with a discussion of possible issues that a federal special education voucher program might raise.
Date: July 3, 2002
Creator: Apling, Richard N.; Jones, Nancy L. & Smole, David P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases

Description: This report discusses congressional restrictions on federal debt. The statutory debt limit applies to almost all federal debt. The limit applies to federal debt held by the public (that is, debt held outside the federal government itself) and to federal debt held by the government's own accounts.
Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2011 Budget Proposals and Projections

Description: This report provides an overview of major budget estimates and projections for the FY2011 federal budget cycle. The report presents and compares budget projections calculated by the Obama Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO). In addition, the report discusses major budgetary issues.
Date: September 1, 2010
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2011 Budget Proposals and Projections

Description: This report provides an overview of major budget estimates and projections for the FY2011 federal budget cycle. The report presents and compares budget projections calculated by the Obama Administration's Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO).
Date: March 29, 2010
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mandatory Spending Since 1962

Description: This report reviews trends in mandatory spending since 1962. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) baseline projections of mandatory spending, which extend to 2018, are discussed, as well as extended baseline projections through 2082 used to explore long-term consequences of current budgetary policy. The report examines mandatory spending’s growth relative to total federal spending and to the size of the U.S. economy, and looks at how the composition of mandatory spending has changed over time.
Date: February 13, 2008
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic Stability Act (PROMESA; H.R. 5278, S. 2328)

Description: The report presents a brief description of Puerto Rico, its relationship with the federal government, and its fiscal challenges. The body of the report provides a section-by-section description of H.R. 5278, including a short overview of the bill, along with a comparison with previous legislation involving control boards.
Date: July 1, 2016
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges

Description: This report discusses multiple challenges the government of Puerto Rico faces in the fall of 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations. The Puerto Rican government outlined a medium-term strategy to address those challenges in a fiscal plan put forth in mid-September 2015.
Date: September 25, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges

Description: This report discusses multiple challenges the government of Puerto Rico faces in the fall of 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations. The Puerto Rican government outlined a medium-term strategy to address those challenges in a fiscal plan put forth in mid-September 2015.
Date: June 3, 2016
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the current state of Puerto Rico's public finances. Puerto Rico faces several fiscal hurdles in 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations.
Date: August 18, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Puerto Rico's Current Fiscal Challenges: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the current state of Puerto Rico's public finances. Puerto Rico faces several fiscal hurdles in 2015. Concerns regarding the sustainability of Puerto Rico's public finances have intensified over the past year, despite several measures taken by the island's government to reduce spending, increase revenues, and restructure its obligations.
Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Austin, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department