Congressional Research Service Reports - Browse

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Polar Bears: Listing Under the Endangered Species Act

Description: On May 14, 2008, Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne announced the listing of polar bears as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The listing itself was praised by some environmentalists, other parties, who opposed the listing itself, argued that the science supporting listing was weak, but felt that the regulations mitigated some of the economic impacts of the listing.
Date: March 4, 2009
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. L. & Alexander, Kristina
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy

Description: This report focuses on the international trade in terrestrial fauna, largely excluding trade in illegal plants, including timber, and fish. Potential issues for Congress include (1) determining funding for trade inspection and investigation; (2) evaluating effectiveness of U.S. foreign aid to combat wildlife trafficking; (3) developing ways to encourage regulation of the wildlife trade; (4) trade sanctions to penalize weak enforcement of wildlife laws; (5) incorporating wildlife trade provisions into free trade agreements; and (6) addressing the domestic and international demand for illegal wildlife.
Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Wyler, Liana S. & Sheikh, Pervaze A.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Description: This report discusses the purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), which is threefold: to provide a means to conserve ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend; to provide a program to protect those species; and to take steps to achieve the purposes of related treaties and conventions.
Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. Lynne
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mad Cow Disease: Agricultural Issues for Congress

Description: This report discusses the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) also know as mad cow disease, which is a degenerative, fatal disease affecting the nervous system in cattle. Worldwide, BSE has been found in 187,000 animals, 183,000 of them in Great Britain, where it was first detected in 1986.
Date: April 21, 2005
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wilderness: Overview and Statistics

Description: In 1964, the Wilderness Act established a national system of congressionally designated areas to be preserved in a wilderness condition: “where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.” This report provides a brief history of wilderness, describes what wilderness is, identifies permitted and prohibited uses in wilderness areas, and provides data on the 109.8 million acres of designated wilderness areas as of January 1, 2015.
Date: January 12, 2015
Creator: Hoover, Katie
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Description: This report analyzes the DPS designation process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also examines experimental populations of wolves under the ESA and their protections. As part of its oversight responsibilities, Congress has conducted hearings on the Fish and Wildlife Service’s application of science to endangered species.
Date: August 10, 2010
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Humane Treatment of Farm Animals: Overview and Issues

Description: This report provides an overview of the debate and legislation to modify or curtail some practices regarding animal care on the farm, during transport, or at slaughter.
Date: September 7, 2007
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foot and Mouth Disease: A Threat to U.S. Agriculture

Description: An outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) among livestock in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe that began in February 2001 has raised concerns about the United States’ ability to prevent the disease from spreading to this country and readiness to eradicate it should an outbreak occur. This report describes the characteristics of the FMD virus and disease, the current measures the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is taking to prevent its importation, and the authorities USDA has to act to eradicate an outbreak. The FMD threat also raises issues concerning the adequacy of funding for disease exclusion and research, the availability of vaccines, and USDA’s authority to move preemptively against a potential outbreak, among other things.
Date: April 16, 2001
Creator: Segarra, Alejandro E. & Rawson, Jean M.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endangered Species Act Amendments: An Analysis of S. 1180 and H.R. 2351

Description: Because of wide-spread interest in possible amendments to the Endangered Species Act (ESA), CRS has received numerous requests for an analysis and critique of S.1180 and H.R. 2351. This report analyzes those bills. HR. 2351 was introduced on July 31, 1997 and S. 1180 on September 16, 1997. Each bill is discussed under various topic headings. The Senate bill will be described first, since it has been reported.
Date: March 2, 1998
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Description: Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects.
Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 109th Congress: Conflicting Values and Difficult Choices

Description: This report identifies additional bills that have been introduced in the 109th Congress to address specific concerns related to how the Endangered Species Act (ESA is implemented and how endangered species are managed, and will be updated periodically to reflect legislative action.
Date: October 27, 2006
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.; Corn, M. Lynne; Sheikh, Pervaze A. & Meltz, Robert
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Northern Right Whale

Description: No Description Available.
Date: April 14, 1995
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

African Elephant Issues: CITES and CAMPFIRE

Description: The conservation of African elephants has been controversial recently on two fronts: the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES, to which the United States is a party), and a Zimbabwean program for sustainable development called CAMPFIRE, which is partially funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Two controversies have sprung up recently about the African elephant. One is the changing status of this species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), of which the United States is a signatory. The other is over a program in Zimbabwe called "CAMPFIRE." The partial funding of this program by the U.S. Agency for International Development has been criticized by animal welfare groups and some conservation groups, though it has been supported by other conservation groups as well as many hunting organizations.
Date: August 5, 1997
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne & Fletcher, Susan R.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fishery, Aquaculture, and Marine Mammal Legislation in the 109th Congress

Description: Fish and marine mammals are important resources in open ocean and nearshore coastal areas; many federal laws and regulations guide their management. This report discusses a variety of laws and legislation pertaining to this issue.
Date: July 14, 2006
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department