Congressional Research Service Reports - 228 Matching Results

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Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of Polar Bear?: A Look at the Special Rules

Description: This report looks at the regulations surrounding the polar bear, which has been protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) since 1972. The report discusses the protections, prohibitions, and special rules for polar bears as well as exceptions to the rules, habitat issues, recovery plans, and other issues regarding polar bear protections.
Date: March 26, 2009
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Does the Endangered Species Act (ESA) Listing Provide More Protection of the Polar Bear?

Description: This report discusses the polar bear that has been protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) since 1972. The polar bear was listed because the bear's primary habitat of sea ice was threatened with destruction due to global climate change.
Date: September 2, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Endangered Species Act (ESA) Issues Regarding Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead

Description: The construction and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) have reduced salmon and steelhead populations in the Columbia Basin. This report discusses the federal regulation of this system under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).
Date: January 26, 2009
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Buck, Eugene H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act: Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Description: This report looks at the distinct population segments (DPSs) process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also reviews experimental populations of wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their protections.
Date: November 5, 2007
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gray Wolves Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA): Distinct Population Segments and Experimental Populations

Description: This report looks at the distinct population segments (DPSs) process as it is applied to the gray wolf. It also reviews experimental populations of wolves under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and their protections.
Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed Changes to Regulations Governing Consultation Under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Description: This report discusses the purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), which is threefold: to provide a means to conserve ecosystems upon which endangered and threatened species depend; to provide a program to protect those species; and to take steps to achieve the purposes of related treaties and conventions.
Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Alexander, Kristina & Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act (ESA)

Description: The agencies that implement the Endangered Species Act (ESA) regard the designation of critical habitat (CH) as providing only very limited benefits beyond those achieved through the listing of species and the avoidance of jeopardy to them. Several courts have now held that the relevant regulation and interpretation that result in this conclusion are erroneous and do not carry out the intent of Congress.
Date: April 11, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act: Consideration of Economic Factors

Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA) provides for the listing and protection of species that are found to be “endangered” or “threatened” – species that might become extinct. The listing of a species as endangered triggers the prohibitions in the Act against “taking” (killing or harming) individuals of the protected species, unless a permit is obtained to take individuals incidental to an otherwise lawful proposed action, or an exemption for the proposed action is obtained. Unauthorized taking of a listed species can result in civil or criminal penalties. These prohibitions and potential penalties can affect various activities, including development and use of land, with attendant economic impacts.
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Background and Current Law

Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Date: August 9, 2004
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act (ESA), Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), and Department of Defense (DOD) Readiness Activities: Current Law and Legislative Proposals

Description: This report provides a brief overview of how the Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA)2 and their relevant regulations may apply to military training and readiness activities of the Department of Defense (DOD). Military activities may “take” protected creatures directly (e.g,. killing with ordnance during rifle, gunnery or assault drills), or might destroy habitat (e.g., artillery or bombing practices), even if these results are not the purpose of the activities. The applicability of the MBTA and ESA to military readiness activities has been controversial recently and legislation has been enacted in both the 107th and 108th Congresses on these topics.
Date: May 30, 2003
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Grazing Regulations: Public Lands Council v. Babbitt

Description: This report discusses new regulations on livestock grazing on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management became effective August 21, 1995. Many aspects of the new regulations were challenged in Public Lands Council v. Babbitt. A federal district court upheld many of the regulations, but struck down four of them and enjoined their implementation. At the appellate level, only the new regulation allowing conservation use to the exclusion of livestock grazing for the full term of a permit was held invalid. The Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case and argument has been set for March 1, 2000.
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act and "Sound Science"

Description: This report provides a context for evaluating legislative proposals through examples of how science has been used in selected cases, a discussion of the nature and role of science in general, and its role in the Endangered Species Act (ESA) process in particular, together with general and agency information quality requirements and policies, and a review of how the courts have viewed agency use of science.
Date: July 16, 2002
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela & Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation.
Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela; Buck, Eugene H. & Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act: A Primer

Description: The Endangered Species Act (ESA)1 receives significant congressional attention. The associated power and reach of its comprehensive protection for species identified as endangered or threatened with extinction has ignited concern that there be appropriate bounds on this power. The following discussion provides an overview and background on the various features of the ESA that contribute to its stature and yet spark an ongoing debate over its implementation.
Date: March 31, 2005
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela; Buck, Eugene H. & Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department