Congressional Research Service Reports - 357 Matching Results

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Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress

Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs.
Date: June 9, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D. & Powers, Kyna
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected?

Description: At least one recent report and numerous news articles suggest that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rising more rapidly than expected. While CO2 emissions associated with human activities continue to rise -- and may be worthy of alarm because of their influence on climate change -- any short-term comparisons between actual emissions and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios miss the mark. This report analyzes this issue and the issues associated with IPCC scenarios and trajectories. It also describes the importance of monitoring CO2 emissions and analyzing the factors and forces behind increasing CO2 emissions.
Date: October 17, 2008
Creator: Leggett, Jane A. & Logan, Jeffrey
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer

Description: This report focuses on the environmental quality of water resources as affected by animal agriculture, specifically animal waste, which can harm water quality through surface runoff, direct discharges, spills, and leaching into soil and groundwater. This report also discusses the contribution of emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), enterprises where animals are raised in confinement, to air pollution.
Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change: Comparison and Analysis of S. 1151 and the Draft "Climate and Economy Insurance Act of 2005"

Description: Several proposals designed to address greenhouse gases have been introduced in the 109th Congress. Two proposals, S. 1151, introduced by Senators McCain and Lieberman, and a draft alternative, announced by Senator Bingaman, received increased scrutiny in preparation for the Senate’s debate on comprehensive energy legislation. During that debate, S. 1151, introduced as S.Amdt. 826, was defeated on a 38-60 vote. In contrast, the draft alternative remains a work-in-progress and has yet to be introduced. This report compares these two proposals.
Date: July 18, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D. & Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer

Description: This report focuses on the environmental quality of water resources as affected by animal agriculture, specifically animal waste, which can harm water quality through surface runoff, direct discharges, spills, and leaching into soil and groundwater. This report also discusses the contribution of emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), enterprises where animals are raised in confinement, to air pollution.
Date: February 2, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Legislation in the 113th Congress

Description: Report regarding legislative actions that explicitly address climate change issues. The provisions in these bills fall into six general categories: carbon price (i.e., tax or fee) on greenhouse (GHG) emissions; other mechanisms intended to encourage mitigation of GHG emissions (e.g., sequestration of emissions); research on climate change-related issues; adaptation activities related to expected climate change impacts; support for international climate change-related activities; and action that limits or prohibits climate change-related authorities, efforts, or considerations.
Date: September 16, 2013
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automobile and Truck Fuel Economy (CAFE) and Greenhouse Gas Standards

Description: Report that looks at vehicle fuel costs, fuel consumption in the United States, and examines the estimated costs to new vehicles that may arise from the Obama Administration's new passenger vehicle fuel economy and greenhouse gas standards for vehicle model years (MY) 2017-2025.
Date: September 11, 2012
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.; Canis, Bill & Lattanzio, Richard K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane: An Introduction to Emission Sources and Reduction Strategies

Description: This report discusses the "Climate Action Plan" (CAP) announced by President Obama to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), as well as to encourage adaptation to expected climate change.
Date: August 15, 2016
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.; Bracmort, Kelsi; McCarthy, James E. & Cunningham, Lynn J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reconsidering the Clean Power Plan

Description: This report provides background on the Clean Power Plan (CPP) and its proposed repeal, describes the administrative steps that are required to repeal or amend a rule, and discusses how the CPP and its proposed repeal fit into the context of recent and projected power sector evolution.
Date: October 25, 2017
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane and Other Air Pollution Issues in Natural Gas Systems

Description: This report provides information on the natural gas industry and the types and sources of air pollutants in the sector. It examines the role of the federal government in regulating these emissions, including the provisions in the Clean Air Act and other statutes, and EPA's and other agencies' regulatory activities. It concludes with a brief discussion of a number of issues under debate, including: defining the roles of industry and local, state, and federal governments; establishing comprehensive emissions data; determining the proper control of pollutants and sources; understanding the human health and environmental impacts of emissions; and estimating the costs of pollution abatement. Recent action by President Trump and the courts regarding EPA and BLM air pollution rules are also discussed.
Date: October 6, 2017
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Issues in the 115th Congress: In Brief

Description: This report discusses the reviews of EPA policies regarding new rules created in 2015 regarding emission of greenhouse gases and ozone air pollution. The new regulations were put in force through authority given to the EPA in the Clean Air Acts of 1970, 1977, and 1990. Some Congressional members would like to revoke some of the authority of the EPA to change existing emission regulations and instead require Congressional approval for changes which along with the new presidential administration has prompted a review of environmental policies and EPA powers.
Date: August 16, 2017
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Litigation Update: "Children's Crusade" Case Against the United States Goes Forward

Description: This report discusses the case of "Juliana v. United States" which was brought by a group of 21 individuals all under the age of 20 organized through an Oregon nonprofit called Our Children's Trust. The plaintiffs seek to compel the federal government to reduce carbon dioxide emissions through appeals to the Constitution and common law.
Date: January 1, 2017
Creator: Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Climate Change Regulation and Litigation: Selected Legal Issues

Description: This report provides a brief history of U.S. climate change regulation, reviews the different types of regulation and legal actions that have been pursued in the national debate over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, examines selected legal issues and next steps in related litigation, and addresses what these legal and regulatory developments mean for Congress. President Trump's Executive Order of March 28, 2017 requiring agencies to reconsider their policies related to climate change is also discussed.
Date: April 3, 2017
Creator: Tsang, Linda
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Trends and Projections: Role of the Clean Power Plan and Other Factors

Description: This report examines recent trends in U.S. GHG emissions, particularly CO2 emissions from electricity generation, and the factors that impact emission levels in that sector. In addition, this report examines the degree to which CPP implementation (or lack thereof) may impact CO2 emission levels from electric power plants. The first section provides an overview of various sources of GHG emissions in the United States. This includes an overview of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and a closer look at CO2 emissions from electricity generation, which account for the second largest percentage of CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion (1% percentage point behind the transportation sector). The second section examines projections of CO2 emissions in the electric power sector, with a particular focus on the role of the CPP and other factors. The final section highlights the challenges in making CO2 emission projections with a comparison of actual CO2 emissions with prior emission forecasts.
Date: May 31, 2017
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change Legislation in the 109th Congress

Description: Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a continuing issue in the 109th Congress. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research to comprehensive emissions cap-and-trade programs. Additional bills focus on GHG reporting and registries, or on power plant emissions of carbon dioxide, as part of wider controls on pollutant emissions. The bills vary in their approaches to climate change issues. This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which these bills are based and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, technology deployment, GHG reporting and registries, and emissions reduction programs.
Date: July 18, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change: Congressional Concern About "Back Door" Implementation of the 1997 U.N. Kyoto Protocol

Description: This report discusses legislation and issues relating to global climate change, some legislation and some FY1999 appropriations bills were used as vehicles for explicit congressional direction to the executive branch about possible "back door" implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change: Carbon Emissions and End-Use Energy Demand

Description: This report presents an analysis of the potential impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. energy demand. The analysis focuses on 27 common end-uses — light duty vehicles, residential space heating, industrial direct process heat, etc. — that describe the way energy is used in the United States
Date: January 20, 1999
Creator: Rowberg, Richard E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits

Description: This report discusses the global climate change policy and proposals to allow credit for early actions to reduce emissions.
Date: July 23, 1999
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate Change: The European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS)

Description: The European Union’s (EU’s) Emissions Trading System (ETS) is a cornerstone of the EU’s efforts to meet its obligation under the Kyoto Protocol. It covers more than 11,500 energy intensive facilities across the 25 EU member countries, including oil refineries, power plants over 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity, coke ovens, and iron and steel plants, along with cement, glass, lime, brick, ceramics, and pulp and paper installations. Covered entities emit about 45% of the EU’s carbon dioxide emissions. The trading program does not cover emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases, which account for about 20% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. A final consideration for the ETS is its suitability for directing long-term investment toward a low-carbon future — the ultimate goal of any climate change program.
Date: July 31, 2006
Creator: Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean Air Act Permitting: Status of Implementation

Description: The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments established an operating permit system that is affecting many new and existing sources of air emissions, as well as state and local air pollution control agencies. After delays and early missteps, the operating permit program is moving ahead. All state and local programs have received interim or full approval, and permits are being issued, although at a slower rate than anticipated. However, a number of issues exist. These include the effect of key federal regulations, not yet promulgated, on permit programs and regulated sources; adequacy of state resources; gaining full approval for those permit programs that now have interim approval; and oversight.
Date: May 14, 1999
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department