Congressional Research Service Reports - 61 Matching Results

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The Proposed U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement

Description: This report addresses the proposed U.S.-Malaysia free trade agreement (FTA). It provides a brief overview of the Malaysian economy, a review of U.S. interests in the proposed agreement, an examination of possible issues likely to arise during the negotiations, a comparison of tariff rates between the two countries, legislative procedures, and an appendix with a brief chronology and trade data — including U.S. exports and imports to Malaysia by sector and exports to Malaysia by state.
Date: January 25, 2008
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Negotiations During the 110th Congress

Description: This report discusses the trade negotiations during Bush Administration, which has made bilateral and regional free-trade agreements (FTAs) an important element of U.S. trade policy, a strategy known as “competitive liberalization.”
Date: January 8, 2008
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Description: This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) in three parts. First, we describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, we discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some CBP origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, we conclude with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process.
Date: August 22, 2008
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Trade: Rules of Origin

Description: "This report deals with rules of origin (ROO) used to determine the country of origin of merchandise entering the U.S. market, in three parts. First, [it] describe in more detail the reasons that country of origin rules are important and briefly describe U.S. laws and methods that provide direction in making these determinations. Second, [the report] discuss briefly some of the more controversial issues involving rules of origin, including the apparently subjective nature of some U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) origin determinations, and the effects of the global manufacturing process on ROO. Third, [the report] concludes with some alternatives and options that Congress could consider that might assist in simplifying the process" (Summary).
Date: June 10, 2008
Creator: Jones, Vivian C. & Martin, Michael F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda

Description: This report discusses the World Trade Organization (WTO) Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, begun in November 2001, which has entered its 11th year. It includes background on Doha and the significance of the negotiations, as well as a breakdown of issues on the Doha agenda and the role of the Congress.
Date: August 18, 2008
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reauthorization of the Federal Maritime Commission (FMC): Opportunity to Reexamine the Congressionally Mandated Antitrust Exemption for Ocean Liner Carriers?

Description: The focus of this report is on the commercial aspects of the U.S. liner trade. The report discusses the historical rationale for shipping conferences and legislative history of U.S. shipping law.
Date: September 18, 2008
Creator: Frittelli, John
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China's Currency: Economic Issues and Options for U.S. Trade Policy

Description: This report starts out by describing China's policy of pegging its currency to the U.S. dollar at an exchange rate of roughly 8.28 yuan to the dollar. As a result, the exchange rate between the yuan and the dollar basically stayed the same. The report discusses most significant events concerning China's currency policy and its impact on U.S. trade deficit.
Date: May 22, 2008
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Labonte, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Trade Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Products

Description: This report presents recent trends in U.S. fruit and vegetable trade, and highlights some of the factors contributing to these trends. This summary excludes trade data for tree nuts and processed tree nut products. Although not presented here, U.S. exports and imports of tree nuts and processed tree nut products (excluding peanuts) have shown continued increases, with a growing trade surplus of $1.8 billion in 2006.
Date: April 30, 2008
Creator: Johnson, Renée
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones: Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) Proposal

Description: This report provides an introduction to U.S. Foreign Trade Zones (FTZ). The report discusses the details of the Trade Agreement Parity (TAP) proposal, the potential winners and losers under the TAP proposal, economic studies on the TAP proposal, and policy analysis on the TAP proposal.
Date: September 29, 2008
Creator: Bolle, Mary Jane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Foreign Trade in Services: Definition, Patterns and Policy Challenges

Description: This report provides background information and analysis on U.S. foreign trade in services. It includes an examination of definitions and examples of services to indicate their nature and scope; a review of the importance of services to the U.S. economy including U.S. foreign trade; and an analysis of the policy challenges that confront the United States, especially the challenge of negotiating a set of international rules on trade in services and the challenge of resolving disputes over trade in services with trading partners.
Date: July 7, 2008
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

Description: This report discusses the different kinds of intellectual property rights (IPR); forms of IPR infringement; importance of IPR to the U.S. economy; estimated losses associated with IPR infringement; organizational structure of IPR protection in multilateral, regional, bilateral; U.S. government agencies involved with IPR and trade; and issues for Congress regarding IPR and international trade.
Date: July 23, 2008
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah & Fergusson, Ian F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WTO Dispute Settlement: Status of U.S. Compliance in Pending Cases

Description: This report provides a summary of the status of U.S. compliance efforts in pending World Trade Organization (WTO) disputes that have resulted in adverse rulings against the United States. The report begins with an overview of WTO dispute settlement procedures, focusing on the compliance phase of the process, followed by a discussion of U.S. laws relating to WTO dispute proceedings. The report then lists pending WTO disputes in the compliance phase, with a brief discussion of major issues and the U.S. compliance history in each.
Date: January 7, 2008
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The World Trade Organization: The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) Negotiations

Description: This report looks at the evolution of the Doha Round World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, possible effects of the Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) agreement, and major negotiating issues from a U.S. standpoint. NAMA refers to the cutting of tariff and non-tariff barriers (NTB) on industrial and primary products, basically all trade in goods which are not foodstuffs.
Date: August 19, 2008
Creator: Fergusson, Ian F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S Goals

Description: This report is designed to assist Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
Date: January 24, 2008
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generalized System of Preferences: Background and Renewal Debate

Description: This report presents, first, a brief history, economic rationale, and legal background leading to the establishment of the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program, which provides non-reciprocal, duty-free tariff treatment to certain products imported from designated beneficiary developing countries (BDC's). A brief comparison of GSP programs worldwide, especially as they compare to the U.S. system, is also presented. Second, the report presents a discussion of U.S. implementation of the GSP, along with the present debate surrounding its renewal and legislative developments to date. Third, an analysis of the U.S. program's effectiveness and the positions of various stakeholders is presented. Fourth, implications of the expiration of the U.S. program and possible options for Congress are discussed.
Date: September 25, 2008
Creator: Jones, Vivian C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. International Trade: Trends and Forecasts

Description: This report provides an overview of the current status, trends, and forecasts for U.S. international trade. The purpose of this report is to provide current data and brief explanations for the various types of trade flows, particularly U.S. exports, along with a short discussion of particular trends and points of contention related to trade policy.
Date: September 5, 2008
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.; Ilias, Shayerah & Donnelly, J. Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Trade Preferences for Developing Countries and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Description: World Trade Organization (WTO) Members must grant immediate and unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment to the products of other Members regarding tariffs and other trade-related measures. Programs such as the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), under which developed countries grant preferential tariff rates to developing country goods, are facially inconsistent with this obligation because they accord goods of some countries more favorable tariff treatment than that accorded to goods of other WTO Members. This report discusses various issues regarding such trade preferences.
Date: October 21, 2008
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade

Description: This report discusses the different kinds of intellectual property rights (IPR); forms of IPR infringement; importance of IPR to the U.S. economy; estimated losses associated with IPR infringement; organizational structure of IPR protection in multilateral, regional, bilateral; U.S. government agencies involved with IPR and trade; and issues for Congress regarding IPR and international trade.
Date: October 20, 2008
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah & Fergusson, Ian F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department