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Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Description: This report discusses employer trip reduction (ETR) programs, which would require large employers to implement certain transportation control measures as part of a national effort to combat air pollution, largely as a direct result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
Date: August 18, 1993
Creator: Flechtner, Maura K. & Mayer, Susan L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

APEC - Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation: Free Trade and Other Issues

Description: As a result of an initiative by Australia in 1989, the United States joined with eleven other Asia/Pacific nations in creating APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation organization. This report discusses the annual Ministerial Meeting of APEC in Seattle, held from November 17 - 19, 1993.
Date: November 10, 1993
Creator: Nanto, Dick K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aquaculture and the Federal Role

Description: Aquaculture is broadly defined as the production of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants in a controlled environment. This report discusses the growth of U.S. aquaculture in the decade preceding 1993, and the subsequent debate about what role, if any, the Federal Government should play in supporting the industry. Relevant legislation and policies are also discussed.
Date: September 9, 1993
Creator: Buck, Eugene H. & Becker, Geoffrey S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Asia's Reaction to NAFTA

Description: NAFTA raises potential economic and political issues for U.S. relations with Asian countries for whom the agreement presents uncertainties regarding the future of their market opportunities in North America. As countries not associated with a preferential trading arrangement of their own, Asian countries are concerned that a trend toward regional trade agreements may affect the capacity of multilateral institutions to protect their global trading interests. This report examines Asian perceptions of NAFTA in both their economic and political dimensions, how Asian countries may respond in concrete ways to NAFTA, and, assuming that NAFTA gains approval in the U.S. Congress, what steps the United States might take toward facilitating a smooth reception for NAFTA in Asia.
Date: June 30, 1993
Creator: Hamilton, Nancy J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Background to the Overthrow of President Aristide

Description: This report provides background information on the violent and authoritarian traditions that have characterized Haiti's political dynamics since Haiti attained independence in 1804. It examines Haiti's difficult path toward democracy after the fall of the Duvalier regime, from numerous short-lived governments until the election of Aristide. Finally, the report also surveys Aristide's rule and his subsequent overthrow by the Haitian military.
Date: October 22, 1993
Creator: Taft-Morales, Maureen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biotechnology, Indigenous Peoples, and Intellectual Property Rights

Description: This report examines intellectual property right in pharmaceuticals in a particular context, namely, medicinal products and processes derived from the biodiversity resources of areas inhabited by indigenous peoples. This report discusses the international law regarding intellectual property rights in traditional knowledge and the American laws regarding traditional knowledge.
Date: April 16, 1993
Creator: Axt, Josephie R.; Corn, M. Lynne; Lee, Margaret Mikyung & Ackerman, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Delaney Dilemma: Regulating Pesticide Residues in Foods -- Seminar Proceedings, March 16, 1993

Description: A provision in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Delaney Clause, appears to lower risks in the setting of tolerances for pesticide residues. It prohibits any substance from being added to processed foods if it induces cancer in man or animals. In reality, the provision created a dilemma because the zero-risk statute makes it difficult to regulate pesticides. Because of the prescription of Delaney, tolerances (legal limits) are established differently for carcinogens and non-carcinogens and in raw and processed foods.
Date: May 19, 1993
Creator: Vogt, Donna U
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Directory of Some Interest Groups and Governmental Organizations Concerned With National Environmental Policies

Description: This report briefly describes selected associations that have demonstrated strong and continuous interest in environmental protection policies of the United States. It provides background information on some of the active participants in national policy discussions. The set of organizations abstracted for this report is not comprehensive; many groups necessarily have been omitted, often because they failed to respond to our request for information. An attempt was made to balance divergent political opinions and to include groups with different perspectives. All associations included in the report have nationwide membership, maintain an office in the vicinity of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and actively seek to influence national (as opposed to international or regional) environmental policies. The financial information provided varies depending on what was available to CRS.
Date: September 21, 1993
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ecosystems, Biomes, and Watersheds: Definitions and Use

Description: This paper describes the meaning and applications of ecosystem and of the related terms watershed and biome. It discusses the pros and cons of all three as organizing principles for land management, and the major issues that are likely to arise in the debate over ecosystem management.
Date: July 14, 1993
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

Description: If the 103rd Congress embarks upon an effort to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act (ESA), it will run into an old acquaintance: the property rights issue. As now written, the ESA has at least the potential to curtail property rights (whatever its actual impact as implemented may be). This report explores the legal repercussions of those impacts, especially whether they constitute takings of property under the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Date: March 7, 1993
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ethanol and Clean Air: The "Reg-Neg" Controversy and Subsequent Events

Description: The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), enacted in 1990, called for cleaner automotive fuels in order to upgrade air quality. This appeared to provide new market potential for ethanol, which is obtained from corn grown in the midwestern United States, and which is already in large-scale use in a blend of ten percent ethanol to ninety percent gasoline. The CAAA left specific details of the clean fuels program to be worked out by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in consultation with the interested parties.
Date: June 22, 1993
Creator: Segal, Migdon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excise Tax Financing of Federal Trust Funds

Description: Dedicated excise taxes finance only a small number of the many activities undertaken by the Federal Government. The fourteen trust funds and special funds currently financed by excise taxes can be grouped under four programmatic purposes: nature conservation and recreation, transportation, environmental cleanup, and health damage compensation. In close parallel, the products currently subject to taxation on behalf of trust and special funds can be classified under the categories of hunting and fishing equipment; cargo transport and air passenger transportation; motor fuels; and materials potentially hazardous to the environment or human health.
Date: January 5, 1993
Creator: Noto, Nonna A. & Talley, Louis Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department