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Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

Description: This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It begins with a brief discussion of how these weapons have appeared in public debates in the past few decades, then summarizes the differences between strategic and nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It then provides some historical background, describing the numbers and types of nonstrategic nuclear weapons deployed by both nations during the Cold War and in the past decade; the policies that guided the deployment and prospective use of these weapons; and the measures that the two sides have taken to reduce and contain their forces. The report reviews the issues that have been raised with regard to U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, and summarizes a number of policy options that might be explored by Congress, the United States, Russia, and other nations to address these issues.
Date: January 3, 2014
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

Description: This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It begins with a brief discussion of the differences between strategic and nonstrategic nuclear weapons. It then provides some historical background, describing the numbers and types of nonstrategic nuclear weapons deployed by both nations during the Cold War and in the past decade; the policies that guided the deployment and prospective use of these weapons; and the measures that the two sides have taken to reduce, eliminate, and, more recently, augment their forces.
Date: January 14, 2010
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

Description: During the Senate debate on the new U.S.-Russian Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) in 2010, many Senators raised questions about Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons and noted their absence from the treaty limits. The United States and Russia have not included limits on these weapons in past arms control agreements. Nevertheless, Congress may press the Administration to seek solutions to the potential risks presented by these weapons in the future. This report looks at issues for Congress to consider regarding US weapons policy in light of the START agreement.
Date: February 14, 2012
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

Description: This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, including history, security issues, and policy options.
Date: February 2, 2011
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

Description: This report provides basic information about U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. The report reviews the issues that have been raised with regard to U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons, and summarizes a number of policy options that might be explored by Congress, the United States, Russia, and other nations to address these issues.
Date: March 23, 2016
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Description: This report provides a brief overview of the United States' and Russia's objectives when they began discussions on the Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty and a summary of how they resolved these differences when concluding the negotiations. It then describes the key provisions in the Treaty, offers a brief assessment of how each nation fared in achieving its objectives when negotiating this agreement, and a summary of reaction from U.S. and Russian commentators.
Date: January 12, 2010
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Description: Report that provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. Articles of the Treaty of Moscow and force structures under this treaty are discussed.
Date: January 3, 2011
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Arms Control: The Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

Description: This report provides background information regarding the Nuclear Arms Control negotiations between U.S. and Russia. Articles of the Treaty of Moscow and force structures under this treaty are discussed.
Date: February 7, 2011
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations

Description: This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons (i.e., nuclear explosive devices, as distinct from the bombers and missiles that carry them) in these nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
Date: February 22, 2013
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan; Mix, Derek E.; Belkin, Paul; Nikitin, Mary Beth; Kan, Shirley A.; Zanotti, Jim et al.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations

Description: This report describes the organizations controlling research and development (R&D) on nuclear weapons in several nations, and presents a brief history of the organizations controlling nuclear weapons R&D in the United States. It discusses whether these organizations are civilian or military, though in many nations the lines between civilian and military are blurred.
Date: February 28, 2011
Creator: Medalia, Jonathan; Belkin, Paul; Kan, Shirley A.; Kerr, Paul K.; Mix, Derek E. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
Date: December 2, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
Date: December 22, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
Date: February 24, 2010
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: Granting Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status requires a change in law because Russia is prohibited from receiving unconditional and permanent NTR under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974. This provision includes the so-called Jackson-Vanik amendment. Extension of PNTR has implications for Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This report examines this legislative issue in the context of Russian accession to the WTO and U.S.-Russian economic ties.
Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the “freedom-of-emigration” requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. The process for Russia's accession has been completed. As a result, Members of the 112th Congress confront the issue of whether to grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR).
Date: January 30, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions currently applied to Russia under Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment. The process for Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) is proceeding and may be completed soon. As a result, Members may confront the issue of whether to grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status during the 112th Congress.
Date: June 16, 2011
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) Status for Russia and U.S.-Russian Economic Ties

Description: This report discusses the issues surrounding whether or not the U.S. should grant Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) following its accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO). The change in Russia's trade status will require legislation to lift the restrictions of Title IV of the Trade Act of 1974 as they apply to Russia, which includes the "freedom-of-emigration" requirements of the Jackson-Vanik amendment.
Date: June 13, 2012
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress

Description: This report describes the current status of the INF Treaty and highlights issues that Congress may address as the United States pursues its compliance concerns with Russia. It includes a historical overview and summary of the provisions of the INF Treaty and Russia's concerns with U.S. compliance with the treaty and concludes with a discussion of options that the United States might pursue to address its concerns with Russia's activities and options that it might pursue if Russia deploys new INF-range missiles.
Date: October 20, 2016
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian Energy Policy Toward Neighboring Countries

Description: This report begins with a brief discussion of the Russian oil and gas industries, including their efforts to purchase energy infrastructure in central and eastern Europe and reduce energy subsidies to neighboring countries. A second section deals with the impact of Russian energy policy on neighboring countries, all of them formerly part of the Soviet Union, de facto or de jure, and all heavily dependent on Russian energy imports. Many of these countries are concerned about what they see as Russian efforts to manipulate that dependency to achieve political goals. A final section deals with U.S. efforts to promote the energy security of these countries and on Congress's response to the issue.
Date: March 22, 2010
Creator: Woehrel, Steven
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian Military Reform and Defense Policy

Description: This report looks at the Russia's revamping of the armed forces that it inherited from the Soviet Union. It discusses the revamping process as well as the new armed forces' relationship with the U.S.
Date: August 24, 2011
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitriy Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
Date: March 31, 2014
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Russian Political, Economic, and Security Issues and U.S. Interests

Description: This report discusses the current political and economic conditions in Russia, focusing on the impact of Vladimir Putin's leadership and the leadership of his successor/protégé, Dmitry Medvedev, both of which have steered Russia away from progress toward democratization. The report also discusses the state of the economy since the Soviet collapse in 1999, how the recent global economic downturn has affected Russia, the state of Russia's military, and the current relationship between Russia and the United States.
Date: March 7, 2014
Creator: Nichol, Jim
Item Type: Report
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department