The Mammary Gland Carcinogens: The Role of Metal Compounds and Organic Solvents

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This article reviews the role of metal compounds and organic solvents in breast cancer development.

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10 p.

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Mulware, Stephen Juma April 24, 2013.

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This article is part of the collection entitled: UNT Scholarly Works and was provided by UNT College of Arts and Sciences to Digital Library, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 11 times . More information about this article can be viewed below.

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This article reviews the role of metal compounds and organic solvents in breast cancer development.

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10 p.

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Abstract: The increased rate of breast cancer incidences especially among postmenopausal women has been reported in recent decades. Despite the fact that women who inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high risk of developing breast cancer, studies have also shown that significant exposure to certain metal compounds and organic solvents also increases the risks of mammary gland carcinogenesis. While physiological properties govern the uptake, intracellular distribution, and binding of metal compounds, their interaction with proteins seems to be the most relevant process for metal carcinogenicity than biding to DNA. The four most predominant mechanisms for metal carcinogenicity include (1) interference with cellular redox regulation and induction of oxidative stress, (2) inhibition of major DNA repair, (3) deregulation of cell proliferation, and (4) epigenetic inactivation of genes by DNA hypermethylation. On the other hand, most organic solvents are highly lipophilic and are biotransformed mainly in the liver and the kidney through a series of oxidative and reductive reactions, some of which result in bioactivation. The breast physiology, notably the parenchyma, is embedded in a fat depot capable of storing lipophilic xenobiotics. This paper reviews the role of metal compounds and organic solvents in breast cancer development.

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  • International Journal of Breast Cancer, 2013. Cairo, Egypt: Hindawi Publishing Corporation

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  • Publication Title: International Journal of Breast Cancer
  • Volume: 2013
  • Pages: 1-10
  • Peer Reviewed: Yes

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UNT Scholarly Works

Materials from the UNT community's research, creative, and scholarly activities and UNT's Open Access Repository. Access to some items in this collection may be restricted.

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  • March 9, 2013

Accepted Date

  • April 24, 2013

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  • April 24, 2013

Added to The UNT Digital Library

  • Aug. 29, 2017, 9:38 a.m.

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Mulware, Stephen Juma. The Mammary Gland Carcinogens: The Role of Metal Compounds and Organic Solvents, article, April 24, 2013; Cairo, Egypt. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc990989/: accessed July 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; crediting UNT College of Arts and Sciences.