Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Metadata

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  • Main Title Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California


  • Author: Achterman, Douglas L.
    Creator Type: Personal


  • Chair: Stein-Martin, Barbara
    Contributor Type: Personal
    Contributor Info: Major Professor
  • Chair: Du, Yunfei
    Contributor Type: Personal
    Contributor Info: Major Professor
  • Committee Member: Loertscher, David
    Contributor Type: Personal
  • Committee Member: Totten, Herman L.
    Contributor Type: Personal


  • Name: University of North Texas
    Place of Publication: Denton, Texas


  • Creation: 2008-12
  • Digitized: 2009-08-31


  • English


  • Content Description: This descriptive, non-experimental study examines the strength of the relationship between California school library media programs and student achievement, using data from California criterion-referenced state-wide tests, publically available school and community demographic data, and a state survey of school library programs. Results indicate a substantial discrepancy in library staffing levels from the elementary grades through the high schools. Nevertheless, statistically significant correlations were found between certificated staffing levels and student achievement at each grade. Significant correlations persisted at the elementary and middle school when controlling for five of six school and community variables, and at the high school when controlling for all six of those variables. Bivariate correlations between total staffing and student achievement were significant at both the middle school and high school level when controlling for all school and community variables. Generally, the strength of the correlations between both certificated and total staffing tended to increase with grade level; at the high school level, correlations were among the strongest reported in any statewide study to date. There was a significant positive relationship between a majority of the 21 library services regularly provided and student achievement at all levels. Total library services were significantly related to student achievement at all levels when controlling for all school and community variables. In multiple regression analyses, there was an increasingly stronger relationship between total library programs and student achievement by grade level when controlling for all school and community variables. At every level, certificated and total staffing levels were associated with the strength of library program elements. The findings from this study confirm a host of prior research on the relationship between school libraries and student achievement and point to inequitable access to school library services in California. Results from this study might also provide a baseline of data for qualitative research that more deeply explores ways school library programs contribute to student achievement beyond ways measured by current standardized tests.


  • Keyword: School libraries
  • Keyword: school library history
  • Keyword: library media specialists
  • Keyword: California
  • Keyword: student achievement
  • Keyword: education
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings: School libraries -- California.
  • Library of Congress Subject Headings: Academic achievement -- California.


  • Name: UNT Theses and Dissertations
    Code: UNTETD


  • Name: UNT Libraries
    Code: UNT


  • Rights Access: public
  • Rights License: copyright
  • Rights Holder: Achterman, Douglas L.
  • Rights Statement: Copyright is held by the author, unless otherwise noted. All rights reserved.

Resource Type

  • Thesis or Dissertation


  • Text


  • OCLC: 436270792
  • Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metadc9800


  • Degree Name: Doctor of Philosophy
  • Degree Level: Doctoral
  • Degree Discipline: Information Science
  • Academic Department: School of Information, Library Science, and Technologies
  • Degree Grantor: University of North Texas