Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 74

and serving on key school or district leadership committees (Lance et al., 2000b). In Illinois, the
amount of time library media specialists devoted to serving on school committees positively
correlated with high school students' performance on the ACT (Lance et al., 2005). In Oregon,
eighth grade students tended to score higher on their state reading tests when their library media
specialist provided in-service training to teachers (Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell, 2001). In
Texas, leadership activities correlated with student achievement scores at the elementary, middle
school, and most strongly, at the high school level (Smith, 2001).
The studies reviewed here suggest that leadership from library media specialists may be
related to student achievement, and that the level of leadership may be influenced by a variety of
factors, including staffing levels, library program budget, and support of the principal and school
Total Library Program and Student Achievement
The variations within and across statewide studies in terms of the strength of correlations
between school library program elements and test scores suggest the complexity of school library
programs' influence on student achievement. If a program has a large budget for new materials
but inadequate staff, the quality of the collection may suffer and so may not contribute to greater
student achievement; if there is full-time professional staffing without adequate clerical support,
the quality of collaborations with teachers may fall short, and consequently, so may student
achievement. Studies in seven states include multiple regressions that combine staffing and
other library media center variables into a single factor and are compared either to individual or
grouped school and community variables. These statistics are difficult to compare, as the factor
analysis in each study produced unique variables, and the multiple regression process leaves
some school or community variables out of final regressions. In some states, there was too little


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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/88/ocr/: accessed May 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .