Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 73

believed the library media specialist was a leader and expert in terms of information issues,
resources and technology. In McIntosh's (1994) self-sampling study of Kentucky library media
specialists at the elementary, middle school and high school levels, the researcher noted
numerous examples of expanded leadership roles in both instruction and technology use, and
asserted that this leadership enabled more and better collaboration.
Some studies have drawn indirect or direct correlations between library media specialist
leadership and student achievement. In the second Colorado study, which examined library
program correlations with fourth and seventh grade state reading test scores, Lance et al. (2000a)
found that there was a positive, statistically significant correlation between teacher/library media
specialist collaboration and test scores, and that as the library media specialist's participation in
leadership roles grew, so did the amount of collaboration with classroom teachers. While
leadership roles did not correlate with test scores, they did significantly correlate with levels of
collaboration. In an interview for School Library Journal, Lance expanded on the connection
between leadership and collaboration, suggesting that activities such as meeting regularly with
the principal, participating on curriculum committees, and conducting faculty in-services-all
indicators of a leadership role-are precursors to collaboration. Said Lance, "You have to step
into those leadership shoes first and establish yourself as a leader that somebody would want to
collaborate with" (Achterman, 2007, p. 51).
Cross-tabulations in the Alaska study (Lance et al., 1999) revealed that over 80 % of the
secondary level library media programs providing greater than average amounts of faculty in-
service were at schools which scored above the mean on state reading tests. Similar comparisons
in Pennsylvania between highest and lowest scoring schools showed that library media
specialists in higher scoring schools spent more time providing in-service training to teachers


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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/87/ocr/: accessed April 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .