Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 71

Table 14

Wisconsin State Test Scores and Total Library Expenditures.: Partial Correlations (Smith, 2006)
Grade State Test r p Control Variable
4 Language Arts .135 .10 percent free and reduced lunch
4 Reading .128* .015 percent free and reduced lunch
4 Language Arts .135* .010 percent free and reduced lunch
4 Language Arts .116* .013 teacher/pupil ratio
10 Language Arts .147 .09 percent LEP studentsa
10 Reading .129* .041 percent minority students
10 Language Arts .170** .007 percent minority students
10 Reading ACT .200** .001 percent LEP studentsa
10 ACT English .203** .001 percent LEP studentsa
10 Reading ACT .234** <.001 percent minority students
10 ACT English .242** <.001 percent minority students
10 Reading ACT .173* .013 percent free and reduced lunch
10 ACT English .164* .018 percent free and reduced lunch
10 Reading ACT .137* .029 teacher/pupil ratio
10 ACT English .138* .029 teacher/pupil ratio
a. Limited English Proficient
*p <.05, **p <.01
Leadership
The studies mentioned in the previous section suggest the importance of adequate
funding for a successful school library program. Lance et al. (2002) suggest that the correlation
between funding and professional staffing runs from staff to budget, not the other way around.
These researchers reason that the correlations between staffing and funding exist because
professional staff raise the profile of the library program and take a more active role in seeking
out funding sources than does clerical staff (Lance et al., 2002).

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/85/ocr/: accessed September 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .