Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 67

media specialists, provides significant evidence that fixed scheduling discourages classroom
teacher/library media specialist collaboration in planning and teaching, whereas flexible or
mixed schedules are more likely to result in these kinds of collaborations. In response to
McCracken's (2001) survey, elementary library media specialists identified fixed scheduling as
one of the major barriers to expanding their role of instructional partner. Over a decade after
Tallman and Donham van Deusen's study (1994), McGregor (2006) notes that the number of
elementary schools with flexible scheduling is still small, and that there has not been much
movement from fixed to flexible scheduling in the past few years. Consistent with studies about
the principal's support of teacher/library media specialist collaboration, McGregor also found
that the principal's support is essential for flexible scheduling to be successful.
In Illinois (Lance et al., 2005), flexible scheduling correlated significantly with
standardized test scores at the elementary, middle and high school levels; in Colorado (Lance et
al., 2000b), this correlation held for middle school but not elementary; and in Michigan (Rodney
et al., 2003), flexible scheduling positively correlated with test scores at the middle and high
school levels.
Budget
Like staffing levels, budget affects all other areas of the library program. Quite simply,
library programs cannot operate without money. Several studies link library expenditures to the
overall quality of library programs or to overall quality of schools. Haycock (1992) found in his
literature review that per student library expenditure affected size of the staff, the collection, and
the services offered through the library media center. Loertscher et al. (1987) found in their
examination of over 200 exemplary elementary schools that 87% of those schools maintained or
increased library materials budgets in the year leading up to the study, and over half of those

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/81/ocr/: accessed February 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .