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Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 66

Program Administration. Staffing Levels, Administrative Support, and Scheduling
Three factors may explain some of the inconsistency in findings across grade levels:
staffing levels, scheduling, and administrative support. First, there is evidence that both
certificated and clerical staffing hours must be adequate for collaboration to take place (Beaird,
1999; Farwell, 1998; Lance et al., 1993; Lance, et al., 1999; Lance et al., 2000b; Lance et al.,
2002; McCracken, 2001; Underwood, 2004).
Second, as Bell and Totten (1991) suggest in their study of school climate factors related
to collaboration between classroom teachers and library media specialists at 39 elementary Texas
elementary schools, the level of collaboration may be influenced by organizational and
institutional characteristics that require the attention of the principal and other site and district
level administrators and school board members. Since the early 1980s there have been several
studies offering evidence that principals, in particular, exert a strong influence over the extent
and quality of planning and teaching collaborations between classroom teachers and library
media specialists (Aaron, 1981; Farwell, 1998; Gehlken, 1994; Hartzell, 2003; Haycock, 1995;
Mocek, 2002; Slygh, 2000; Tallman & Donham van Deusen, 1994; Underwood, 2004; Yetter,
Finally, scheduling of library visits significantly affects the amount of collaboration.
Flexible scheduling allows for scheduling of class visits to the library as the need arises, as
opposed to fixed scheduling, in which the schedule is unvarying and regular, often once a week,
or mixed scheduling, a combination that allows for some levels of both fixed and flexible
scheduling (Holton, Bae, Baldridge, Brown & Heffron, 2004). The work of Donham van
Deusen (1993; see also Donham van Deusen & Tallman, 1994; Putnam, 1996), which examined
the relationship between the type of library scheduling employed and the activities of library


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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. ( accessed January 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library,; .