Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 63

o Pennsylvania (Lance et al., 2000b)
o Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002)
* Providing student access to the library media center
o Alaska (Lance et al., 1999)
o Pennsylvania (Lance et al., 2000b)
o Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002)
* Teaching cooperatively with classroom teachers
o Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002)
* Offering reading incentive activities (Lance et al., 2002)
o Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002)
* Meeting with principal or other administrators (Lance et al., 2002)
o Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002)
There is ample support in the literature that staffing correlates positively with reading
achievement and other norm- and criterion-referenced measures of student achievement.
Research cited here additionally indicates that staffing levels directly affect library media
specialists' abilities to perform many of their instructional roles. The presence or absence of
these instructional roles performed by the library media specialist has also been shown to
correlate with student achievement.
It is not surprising, then, that total library staffing levels offer an indicator of student
achievement in so many of the statewide studies. In bivariate correlations, four of six state
studies-- Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003), North Carolina (Burgin et al., 2003), Pennsylvania
(Lance et al., 2000b) and Wisconsin (Smith, 2006)-indicate positive significant correlations
between total staffing and student achievement across all sampled grade levels. In New Mexico,

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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/77/ocr/: accessed March 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .