Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 54
gained traction (see Cleaver & Taylor, 1989; Craver, 1986; Grazier, 1979), subsequent studies
examined the effect of information skills instruction integrated into content area curriculum and
found such integration to boost student achievement (Bingham, 1994; Broadway & Baldridge,
1988; DeBlauw, 1973; Farwell, 1998; Hara, 1996; Kirkland, 1993; Kreiser, 1991; Loertscher, Ho
& Bowie, 1987; Rojtas-Milliner, 2006; Todd, 1999). Statewide studies showing significant
positive correlations between information literacy instruction and standardized achievement
scores include Alaska (Lance et al., 2000), Pennsylvania (Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell,
2000b), Massachusetts, (Baughman, 2000), New Mexico (Lance et al., 2002), Indiana (Callison,
2004), Illinois (Lance et al., 2005), and Wisconsin (Smith, 2006).
Collaboration between Library Media Specialists and Classroom Teachers
More broadly, successful integration of information literacy instruction requires
collaboration with classroom teachers to plan and teach curriculum (AASL & AECT, 1998, 64).
Professional and academic literature points to the benefits of such collaboration in terms of
student achievement. Bell (1990) and Bell and Totten (1992) found that in academically
effective schools, classroom teachers were more likely to choose school library media specialists
to collaborate on instructional problems. Haycock (1992) concluded from his review of doctoral
dissertations that students gain more competence in research and study skills when these skills
are integrated into collaborative lesson plans created by classroom teachers and library media
specialists. In a qualitative study of collaboration between classroom teachers and library media
specialists at two elementary schools that used literature-based instruction, Jones (1994)
observed that "purposeful partnerships"-deliberate curricular planning and team teaching
between classroom teacher and library media specialist-resulted in a greater quantity of
literature being read to students and a strengthened effort at literature-based instruction. Farwell
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/68/ocr/: accessed February 20, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .