Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 51
student achievement. Ainsworth (1969) found a statistically significant improvement in the
mean scores of 5th and 6th grade students from pre-test to post-test measurements of library skills
when those students attended a school with a professionally staffed library, and a statistically
significant difference between these students' scores and those from a school with no
professional library staff. Becker (as cited in Didier, 1984) used experimental and control groups
of fifth graders in schools with and without librarians to examine the impact of librarians on
social studies achievement and concluded that the presence of a librarian bore a significant
positive relationship to students' skills in information gathering and in the reading of charts and
graphs. Greve's (1977) study of 232 Iowa high schools yielded a positive significant correlation
between overall achievement on the Iowa Tests of Educational Development and the level of
school library services available. A study of 79 south Texas public schools concluded that
among school and community predictors of academic achievement on state criteria-referenced
tests, only the absence of at-risk conditions was stronger than the size of the library staff and
collection (Hall-Ellis & Berry, 1995). Martin (1996) correlated survey responses from
elementary, junior high and senior high school library media specialists throughout Georgia with
both norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests and found significant positive correlations
between student achievement and library variables at the third, fifth and eleventh grades,
although not at the eighth grade. Among all library variables considered, staffing was the best
predictor of academic achievement. Jenkins (2000) correlated norm-referenced test scores at the
elementary, middle and high school level in schools throughout Oklahoma with library-related
survey results from those schools and found that schools employing library media specialists
full-time tended to have higher scores, more academic all-state scholars, and larger book
collections than schools without a library media specialist. In Indiana, Callison (2004) found that
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/65/ocr/: accessed February 27, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .