Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 45
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with an organized central collection under the direction of a librarian. Gaver found that students
with access to a school library read twice as many books as those with access to a centralized
collection and nearly three times more than those with access only to a classroom collection.
McMillen (as cited in Didier, 1984) studied selected Ohio elementary schools in 1965
and found that where there was a full-time, professional librarian, students' reading scores and
knowledge and use of reference materials was greater than in those libraries with lower levels of
service. In 1965, Wilson (as cited in Haycock, 1992) looked at urban elementary school libraries
in Detroit and found that in schools with centralized libraries and certified librarians, students
grades four through six scored higher in general education gain, reading achievement, and
reference skills on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Two longitudinal studies in the late 1960s by
Thorne (1967, as cited in Marchant, Broadway, Robinson & Shields, 1984) and Yarling (1968,
as cited in Aaron, 1972) noted the progress of students from Knapp Project schools in contrast to
comparison schools with few library services and found that students exposed to the full library
services of a professional staff scored higher in reading comprehension and library skills, and
that those higher scores were statistically significant.
Didier (1982, 1984) found that seventh grade reading scores on a state objective-
referenced test were significantly greater at schools with professional library media personnel
than at those without such staff. While Lowe (1984) did not find significant correlations between
professional school library staffing and achievement on standardized reading tests, the author did
find that students at schools with centralized libraries and professional library staff, students read
more books, read more books for school work, and read more books for general information and
recreationally than did students at schools without centralized libraries and professional staff.
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Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/59/?rotate=270: accessed July 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .