Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California Page: 29
If there is a positive relationship between student achievement and the hours a library
opens, one might expect a corresponding relationship between student achievement and the
frequency of student visits to the library. Bivariate correlations from several studies, including
Iowa (Rodney, Lance & Hamilton-Pennell, 2002), Michigan (Rodney, Lance & Hamilton-
Pennell, 2003), Wisconsin (Smith, 206) and New Mexico (Lance, Rodney & Hamilton-Pennell,
2002), bear this out. Results from the Missouri (Miller, Want & Whitacre, 2003) study also
show a positive but not statistically significant correlation. See Table 2 for a summary of results.
State Test Scores and Library Visits per Student.: Bivariate Correlations
State Grade State Test r p
Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002) 4 Reading .188* .018
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 4 Reading .132** .005
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003) 7 Reading .176 t <.05
Iowa (Rodney et al., 2002) 8 Reading .142t .043
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 8 Reading .182** .006
New Mexico 10 Language Arts .229 .058
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 10 Reading .144* .024
Wisconsin (Smith, 2006) 10 ACT English .153* .017
Michigan (Rodney et al., 2003) 11 Reading .158? <.05
Missouri (Miller et al., 2003) K-12 Weighted .091 .159
a. A formula that combines reading and non-reading test scores, weighted by the number of students eligible to take the test.
* p <.05, two-tailed. ** p <.01, two-tailed t p <.05, one-tailed.
Here’s what’s next.
This dissertation can be searched. Note: Results may vary based on the legibility of text within the document.
Citing and Sharing
Basic information for referencing this web page. We also provide extended guidance on usage rights, references, copying or embedding.
Reference the current page of this Dissertation.
Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California, dissertation, December 2008; Denton, Texas. (digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/m1/43/ocr/: accessed April 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, Digital Library, digital.library.unt.edu; .